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    Substantial Similarity in Copyright Law



    The Copyright Law is made up of all the legal principles and rules envisaging the protection of those who produce intellectual works in the field of literature, music and the fine arts, including photographs, films and performance of artists. It is in essence concerned with the negative right of preventing the copyright of physical, material, existing in the field of literature and art. Its object is to protect the author of an original work from the unlawful re-production of his material. Copyright is a man’s inherent right over his intellectual property which emanates from the deep recesses of the human mind and assumes tangible form called his works. Nothing can be called a man’s property than the fruits of his brains. The property is an article or substance accruing to him by reason of his own mechanical labor is never denied him: the labor of his mind is no less arduous and consequently no less worthy of protection of the law.

    The various requirements for a work to be eligible for copyright include:

    1. The work must be original

    2. The copyright subsists in the expression of ideas and not in the ideas, no matter how genuine and novel the work is.

    3. The work must be fixed in some tangible form for more than a transitory period.

    The United States Supreme Court, in Fiest Publication, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co., Inc., articulated the elements of copyright infringement as

    1. Ownership of a valid copyright

    2. Unauthorized copying of constituent elements of the work that are original

    Not all copying is a copyright infringement. Particularly, actionable copying requires appropriation of protected elements of the work.

    It is extremely difficult to prove copying by direct evidence. Therefore, to prove the same, recourse is taken to the defendant’s access to the work and “substantial similarity” between the original work and the accused work. To prove an infringement of copyright in a particular work, there must be an element of misappropriation. The degree of similarity necessary for a court to find misappropriation is not easily defined. Indeed, “the test for infringement of a copyright is of necessity vague”.

    Further, we need to reach to the kernel of the work which is more commonly referred to as the “core copyrightable material”.

    The underlined need to be removed:

    1. ideas

    2. facts

    3. substances from the public domain

    4. substances which come under the purview of the doctrine of merger, where an idea and its expression are inseparable, that is, the idea can effectively be expressed in only one way.

    5. such expressions which have become “standards” for describing a particular idea, elements which are referred to as scenes a faire,

    from the alleged infringed work to come up with nugget of such work. The kernel of the alleged infringed work, so obtained, is to be compared with the alleged infringing work to decide factually and circumstantially, the infringement. The latter would be proved true if there is substantial similarity between the two works under question.

    Various tests

    1. The lay observers’ test

    2. The extrinsic-intrinsic test

    3. The abstraction-filtration-comparison test

    have evolved over the years through different judicial pronouncements to help Courts come to the conclusion regarding substantial similarity.


    The traditional test for substantial similarity is known as the “ordinary observer” or the “audience” or more appropriately, the “lay observers'” test. The basis for the test is “whether an average lay observer would recognize the alleged copy as having been appropriated from the copyrighted work.” The ordinary observer is taken as the benchmark against which the presence or absence of substantial similarity is determined. The origins of the ordinary observer test may lie in an 1822 English decision, West v. Francis, quoted by White-Smith Publishing Co. v. Apollo Co.,: “A copy is that which comes so near to the original as to give every person seeing it the idea created by the original.” The phrase “every person” could not literally have meant every possible person, but it is presumed that it referred to a hypothetical person. Unlike trademark infringement, though, in copyright infringement cases, survey evidence is not permitted.

    It was said in Atari, Inc. v. North American Philips Consumer Elecs. Corp. that the test for substantial similarity is “whether the accused work is so similar to the plaintiff’s work that an ordinary reasonable person would conclude that the defendant unlawfully appropriated the plaintiff’s protectable expression by taking material of substance and value.” The touchstone of the analysis is the “overall similarities rather than the minute differences between the two works.”

    As was mentioned in Arnstein v. Porter, as a rare rationale for the ordinary listener test,

    “Whether the defendant unlawfully appropriated presents, too, is an issue of fact. The proper criterion on that issue is not …

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    After Dinner Speech – Best Top Tips From a Professional After Dinner Speaker


    Don’t tell me! Someone mentioned they were looking for an after dinner speaker for an important event and you, in a moment of weakness or sheer madness, said you would do it. And now, as the evening rapidly approaches, you have swallowed a little of your precious pride and decided to seek help or search for some speech material you might us. Am I right?

    Let me begin by saying this, if it is of any consolation, you are not the first and most certainly won’t be the last to put your mouth into gear before engaging your brain. Many years back, flattered by friends who said I was a natural comedian, I did exactly the same and what follows are some of my best top tips to make the coming event a little less daunting, and hopefully help you by describing some of the basic mistakes I made in those early days whilst dying as an inexperienced, after dinner speaker.

    Many people, including some of my friends, believe comedians are born funny and then somehow become a natural, polished, humorous entertainer. Nothing is further from the truth. Some top, after dinner speakers develop their skill as children as a method of dealing with school bullies, and the everyday anguish growing-up causes so many of us in those terrible teenage times. For far too many, school is not the best days of your life as described by those for whom time has distorted the truth; but a living hell, made a little easier by learning to make others laugh as a means of defense.

    Some of the best after dinner speakers on the professional circuit began studying the subject after realising how powerful a tool it is in entertaining and amusing a captive audience, in convivial company, after a meal. The fact that others were prepared to pay money to have someone make others laugh would, initially, have been a bonus, and later, with lots of experience and ‘gigs’ under their belt, an effect way to earn a living.

    For those amongst you who are thinking about using after dinner speaking as a means of making a living, my advice is to carefully consider whether your dream could ever become a reality. Professional, after dinner speaking is one of the most difficult occupations in which to earn a decent living. There are lots of after dinner speakers out there offering their polished skill as a service, and relatively few speaker engagements available to ply their trade.

    Most after dinner speakers are hired through an agent. The difficulty for those wanting to become an after dinner speaker is that agents are only interested in established, quality, popular speakers with a proven ability to give an after dinner speech.

    Such after dinner speakers have so much experience; they no longer have ‘off days’. Their reputation for excellence is already in place, and this removes the element of chance that event organisers take when engaging a less experienced, amateur, after dinner speaker. What event organisers gain in cash saving is insignificant when compared to their potential loss of reputation with which they gamble when engaging cheap amateurs.

    If you are considering giving after dinner speeches as a profession, please believe me when I say that being a successful, fulltime, professional after dinner speaker is seriously hard work and is a dream that is, for most, very difficult to achieve. In regard to quality of life, it will mean many late nights, often away from home and your loved ones. The occupation of after dinner speaker is not nearly as glamorous as some would imagine. It can be an extremely tiring and demanding occupation with variable rewards.

    If, all that said, you are still interested in how to give an effective, entertaining after dinner speech, perhaps as a one-off or hobby, what follows are my best, top tips:

    I begin by offering some reassurance – most audiences make allowances for a courageous amateur doing his or her best to entertain them. They often hold a ‘better them than me’ attitude.

    A survey carried out in America showed that more people fear public speaking than death. Which, I guess means, that at a funeral, Americans would rather be the individual lying in the coffin than the poor soul providing the eulogy to the mourners!

    Some, attempting to perform as an effective after dinner speaker, fail because they don’t work hard enough at being funny. Being funny is seriously hard work and not that funny.

    After dinner speaking is no different to any other skilled profession.  The fortunate few funny folk having all the lucky breaks is nonsense. Luck plays little part in whether or not you are likely to succeed as an after dinner speaker.

    It was Gary Player who said, “The more I …

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    Traditonal Vs. Neo-Traditional Tattooing


    Some say that there’s no difference between traditional tattoos and neo-traditional tattoos; though the differences are slight, they are still there. Traditional tattoos consist of dark heavy line strokes and solid colors. They are intentionally kept simple in design and use a limited color palette that consists of red, green, yellow, brown, and blue with little to no shading.

    Tattoo culture at the time was very much fringe and on the outskirts of society, unlike the mainstream appeal and fine art credibility it has today. These sailors would get iconic images stamped on their body as a celebration of their service; only accomplished sailors that have been to far away lands and traveled a certain number of miles were able to get swallows, for example. Traditional tattoos were not customly created, rather they were just flash picked off walls.

    “Traditional” adheres to specific imagery: patriotic symbols like eagles, ships, anchors, the American flag, daggers, pin ups, swallows and nautical stars. All of these symbols stemmed from classic sailor and Navy icons that were prevalent in the early 20th century when servicemen would return stateside and get tattooed.

    Neo-traditional tattoos pay homage to the classic, timeless art form through the same techniques; bold lines and heavy color saturation with minimal shading and detail. However, the imagery and designs used are generally more diverse and the color palette used is more diverse. A purely “American” tattoo style, neo traditional has included candles, lighthouses, diamonds, coffins and other concepts and rendered them in a “traditional” fashion.

    Not to be confused with “New-School”, a more cartoonish, exaggerated and colorful style of tattooing, Neo-traditional is a revival of the “Old-School”, a celebration of roots and origins.

    The innate beauty that the traditional tattoo style offers appeals across all generations of enthusiasts; bold lines and solid colors tend to fade less, offering the longevity and long lasting quality that so many desire.

    Aside from black and grey, traditional has proven to be the one of the only tattoo styles that stand the test of time, and will always have an audience to wear them. The beauty of traditional tattooing is just that; there will always be artists looking to recreate the classic tattoos and culture that helped pave the way and make the tattoo industry what it is today.

    Today, artists like Myke Chambers are paving the new generation of professional traditional tattooers, elevating the art to a new frontier and keep tradition alive.


    Source by Leo Gomon

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    Features of the Best Gas Barbeque Grill


    There is a reason the best gas barbeque grill costs a little more. It’s built to last you a lifetime. If you want the best gas barbeque grill made, here are the features you should look for.

    Stainless Steel Construction

    What makes stainless steel special isn’t that it’s made of steel and isn’t that it’s stainless. Because it’s not. Metals labeled “stainless steel” will discolor, lose their luster, stain, rust and pit. The fact of the matter is that there are dozens of varieties of stainless steels available in the market place – and they are not created equal.

    There are two basic grades of stainless steel used in today’s outdoor gas grills – magnet (400) stainless and non-magnetic (300) stainless. The (400) grade magnetic stainless steel is inferior to the (300). It’s not as durable or rust resistant as the (300), it does not conduct or retain heat as well, and it will warp when exposed to high temperatures, and it generally produces an inferior product.

    The typical box store gas barbeque grill uses (400) stainless steel. The finest gas grill uses only commercial grade 304 stainless steel. That’s why they can be backed by a 100% lifetime guarantee.

    So, if you’re shopping for a quality stainless steel gas grill, take a magnet with you. If the magnet sticks to the grill, walk away. It is not a quality stainless steel grill.

    Fully Welded Seams vs. Spot Welding

    Next time you’re in your local box store take some time to inspect their gas barbeque grills. What you will find is that the seams are not fully welded – they are spot welded. And spot welding will not hold up to the extreme temperatures produced in a gas barbeque grill. These seams will eventually pop and split – ending the useful life of the barbeque grill.

    If you want the best outdoor grill available, make sure the seams are fully welded. These grills will last a lifetime.


    So what’s a BTU? It’s the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 39 degrees to 40 degrees. So in its simplest terms the BTU measures heat output.

    And how does that translate to outdoor gas grills? Taken alone, the number of BTUs a gas barbeque grill can produce is meaningless. What is meaningful is the number of BTUs produced per square inch of cooking surface. The finest outdoor gas grills produce 100 BTUs or more per square inch of grill surface.

    Why does this matter? It matters because this is the level of heat required to properly sear a steak, producing steak house quality meat time and time again. So if you want to become legendary for your grilling skills, you need to know the BTUs per square inch of grill surface before you buy your next barbeque grill. That is what will set you apart from the rest of the neighborhood.

    Infrared Cooking

    An infrared burner is no longer a fad when it comes to producing wonderfully tender steaks. It’s a necessity. Infrared heat is radiant heat – and radiant heat cooks meat without drying it out. Gone are the days of hockey puck hamburgers.

    When you consider your next outdoor gas grill, make sure is comes equipped with an infrared burner.

    Flavor Zones and Heat Separators

    Flavor Zones were first introduced by Weber Grills. The concept was to produce separate temperature zones across the grill – so you could have one side cranked up all the way to sear your meat while the other side was set to low to cook tender vegetables.

    Today, premium manufactures like SUN Gas Grills have done one better. Their flavor zones have holes which allow for the escape of heat as your turn the various burners up and down. And they have introduced heat separators between the flavor zones to shield the heat of one burner from the remainder of the grill – allowing for precise temperature control along the entire length of the gas barbeque grill.

    This technology is the finest available today. Make it part of your next gas barbeque grill.

    Smoker Box

    The best outdoor gas grills on the market today incorporate old fashioned smoking in the form of a smoker box. The smoker box is designed to infuse your food – especially your meat – with the flavor of hickory (or other hard wood) smoke at the same time as you grill your meat.

    100% Unconditional Guarantee

    Regardless of the model gas barbeque grill you choose, the person selling it should be willing to back it up with a 100% unconditional guarantee. If they are not willing to do so, you need to question the quality of the grill you are about to purchase. Excellent quality gas barbeque grills will last …

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    Thomas Cole and a Goblet for Titans


    American painter Thomas Cole is best known for his detailed depictions of the American countryside, depicted in accordance with the tenets of Romanticism and Naturalism. As a founder of the Hudson River School, Cole was instrumental in this development and depiction of the American landscape.

    However, not all landscapes depicted by Cole were based on actual existing locations. Indeed, while even his depictions of existing landscapes often exhibited idealistic interpretations of nature, some of his most famous paintings were not based on actual landscapes at all. Among these works, we find the aptly named “The Titan’s Goblet”. This masterpiece was painted by Thomas Cole in 1833 and its deeper meaning has been open to interpretation ever since. It was painted on a fairly small canvas which contrasts nicely to the immensity of the subject, and was done using a very thin layer of paint, maybe because Cole painted this subject for himself rather than for any specific sponsor. However, its humble beginnings none withstanding, it was a masterful execution of a mind boggling subject: An immense mountain landscape amid which rests an immense goblet. The Goblet is filled with water and along its shores people are living, while they spend their days sailing on the waters of the goblet itself. From the sides of the goblet, some water falls to the landscape below and where it lands, life emerges.

    The interpretations of such an immense work have obviously been many and varied. Cole himself did not provide any text on the subject, which only heightens the speculation on the real meaning of the painting. Some early speculation focused on the similarity of the goblet to a tree and went to compare it to Yggdrasil of the Norse Methodology, though this interpretation was later abandoned as it was very unlikely that Cole had even heard of the Norse Gods and their detailed mythology.

    Another more inviting interpretation, supported by the name of the painting itself, lends the inspiration to the realm of the Greek gods. With the titans of that Mythology being gigantic beings that did craft giant stone objects, this interpretation lends itself more easily. That the titans were themselves also givers of life can be seen as reflected in the life giving characteristics of the goblet in the painting. The presence of both a Greek temple and an Italian palace on the banks of the goblet also further lends credibility to such a Mediterranean interpretation.

    However, Louis Legrand Noble who was both a friend and biographer of Cole did not mention any such Mythological connection – and we could rightly have expected him to know. Rather, he wrote:

    “There (the goblet) stands, rather reposes upon its shaft, a tower-like mossy structure, light as a bubble, and yet a section of a substantial globe. As the eye circles its wide rolling brim, a circumference of many miles, it finds itself in fairy land; in accordance though with nature on her broadest scale… Tourists might travel in the countries of this imperial ring, and trace their fancies on many a romantic page. Here steeped in the golden splendors of a summer sunset, is a little sea from Greece, or Holy Land, with Greek and Syrian life, Greek and Syrian nature looking out upon its quiet waters.”

    So in his interpretation, we are rather looking at a utopic fairy land where romantic fantasies can come to life. In other words it is a world of dreams, set above the lands of normal mortals. It is the illustration of a dream. In such an interpretation, the title itself only refers to the size of the goblet, and the painting to a romantic idea. As Cole’s paintings were highly influenced by Romanticism, this is definitely another possibility.

    In recognition of the unique nature of The Titan’s goblet, it was the only pre-20th century painting included in the New York Museum of Modern Arts 1936 “Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism” exhibition. The painting can today be found on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Arts in New York.


    Source by Catherine Garney

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    What to Expect During Your Home's Roof Replacement Project


    Replacing your roof is an essential part of maintaining your home. A damaged or improperly maintained roof can cause thousands and dollars in damage to other parts of the home. Repairs only go so far, and it will always be time to replace your roof entirely. Replacing your roof can seem like a daunting task for the first time homeowner. Choosing between hundreds of professional roofing contractors can be confusing. Thankfully, the project of getting a new roof is not too complicated, and it helps to know what to expect.

    The first step in any roof replacement project is obtaining estimates and choosing a contractor. It's a good idea to research several companies. Make sure they have good reputations and are licensed in your state. Be sure to obtain estimates from several contractors before signing a contract, as roofing estimates can have a wide range. There are many factors that can influence the cost of a roof replacement. It's good to know a little about them before you get too involved.

    The size and slope of the roof, the materials being used, and the region of the country can all affect the final cost of the project. A roof that is particularly steep and slippery will cost more to replace than a roof that is more easily accessible. The height of the roof matters as well. Roofs on two-story homes are more expensive to replace than roof on ramblers or ranchers. This is simply because it's easier for the workers to access a roof that is closer to the ground. Also, like almost anything, prices vary depending on where you live. Roof replacements cost more in places where the general cost of living is higher. The frequency of roof replacements differs depending on the region of the county as well. Roofs in the Midwest generally need to be replaced more often than roofs in other parts of the country due to extreme weather. Likewise, homeowners in Southern California replace their roofs less often since the weather is usually mild year-round.

    There are several different types of roofs you can have installed. The materials can range in price anywhere from $ 1 to $ 40 or more per square foot. The most common roofing material is asphalt shingle. These are relatively inexpensive and are usually guaranteed to last anywhere between 20 and 30 years. They come in may different colors to compliment the exterior of your home. Another form of roofing is wood shake, which usually costs $ 6 to $ 9 a square foot. These roofs are usually made of cedar and canker 12 to 25 years, but they require almost constant maintenance. Metal roofing such as copper or aluminum can cost $ 15- $ 20 a square foot. Tile roofs, such as terra cotta, are generally used in southwest architecture and cost $ 6 to $ 9 a square foot. (Tiles are not recommended in areas with frequent rainfall, as they have a tendency to leak.) A slate roof is the most durable, though it is also the most expensive, and can cost up to $ 40 a square foot ($ 120,000 to replace a 3,000 square foot roof). Slate is generally used on upscale homes and can last up to 200 years or more depending on the quality.

    Along with being inexpensive, asphalt shinglees require little maintenance, making them the most popular roofing choice for American homeowners. While asphalt shingle roofs are often designed to last 25 or 30 years, the actual life span of your roof can vary depending on where you live. High speed winds, hurricanes, heavy storms, blizzards, and dramatic temperatures fluctuations decrease the longevity of your roof. Estimates for replacing an asphalt shingled roof can range from $ 1,500 to $ 9,000 depending on the size of the roof as well as location.

    The cost of a roof replacement project varies depending on where you live. A roof replacement costs less in the Midwest than it does in the Northeast. In places where the general cost of living is higher, roof replacements will cost more as well. If you live in the Midwest, you will need to replace your roof more often. High speed winds, tornadoes, blizzards, and ice storms will all wreck havoc on your roof. Temperature fluctuations can also damage roofs. In the desert the temperature can be over 100 degrees during the day and drop to 50 or 40 degrees at night. 20-year asphalt shingle in Arizona and New Mexico last on average only 15 years, due to sustained damage from temperature fluctuations. Homeowners in regions with mild weather can get away with more moderate roof repairs, putting off full replacements for longer periods of time.

    Roof replacement estimates may vary depending on all of these factors (location, materials, etc.). …

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    Glass Painting – Mixing Paints To Make The Most Of Colors In A Reverse Glass Painting


    Having done reverse glass painting for eight years, I still find that there are some things to learn. The one very best thing that can be learned about is colors, and how they affect each other. One of the most important aspects of any painting, is how the colors play on each other. Sometimes, it can really be a process getting the right ones! If you just want to stick with the basics, that will make things so much easier until you have enough experience to feel your way through it. So, here are the basics.

    Glass painting, and mixing colors are something you want to know about.

    If you are going to do some glass painting, it helps a lot to know something about colors to make the most of it. Why spend hours painting every spot on a cheetah if you may not even be able to see it if the background ends up too dark? Make your colors work for you! There are only three primary colors. Red, Blue and Green are the only colors that can not be mixed from any other colors. Likewise, there are only three secondary colors. If two primary colors are mixed together in equal proportions, the end result will be a secondary color. Orange is made from red and yellow, two of the primaries. Green is made from blue and yellow, and violet is made from red and blue. There is a multitude of intermediate colors. These are also called tertiary colors, but I said we would keep it simple, so let us just call them intermediate. This would be a primary color mixed with a secondary color. A few examples of this would be blue green, peach, and mauve. Red , orange and yellow are called warm, or aggressive colors. The cool, or receding colors are blues, greens and violets. A tint is a color plus white. A tone is a color plus grey. A shade is a color plus black. The value is the lightness or darkness of a color. All right! If you can get that part down you are half way there! The second part of this journey is putting this in action!

    For the main subject of the painting, try, as much as possible, to use primary and intermediate colors. Keep these colors as strong as you can! Even though blue is usually thought of as a receding color, it is also primary. You can use it for up close and personal type things! If later on in the painting, you want the blues to recede, you are going to need to mix the blue paint to make a tone, a plus grey color. The warm colors, the color that is pure, and demands to be seen, will be used only in minimal amounts as the back ground recedes. Only where it is really needed!

    For the less important things in the painting, the background, let it do just that. Let it recede. Dull the colors down. Let it recede with the tones. My plan is to write more on the tones later, but for now we are going to keep it simple. As the back ground of the painting recedes, the colors will become lighter, hence, only tints of the colors that you started with. If you will allow the background to be behind the main topic of the painting, the human eye will see it as being so much more natural! Now you will have a painting that you really want to look at!


    Source by Sally Willson

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    NC Cash 5 Lottery Tips – Learn How to Win Today


    Don’t assume that you’re never going to win in the Cash 5 lottery. By applying effective strategies and tips into your game plan, you can actually win the jackpot without having to waste thousands of dollars on lotto pay slips. There are different kinds of lottery games, and this article is going to talk about the most effective NC cash 5 lottery tips for lotto players residing in North Carolina.

    The rules of the Cash 5 lottery are simple: buy a lottery ticket and pick 5 numbers to bet on. If one or two of the numbers you picked become the winning numbers, then you win the prizes corresponding to them. The more numbers chosen, the higher your chances are for winning the lottery. If there aren’t any winners at all for the day, then the grand jackpot prize increases making it even more exciting those who are playing. Normally you would have to pick numbers within the range of 1-30, but this varies depending on what state you are playing in. North Carolina, for instance, focuses more on the cash 5 lottery games so definitely you have to play by the rules and focus your strategy more on this type of lottery instead of the usual pick 3 or big time lottery games.

    There are NC cash 5 lottery tips online that will give you some ideas and even hone your own strategy on how to increase your chances of winning. Though they may or may not work for you, it is important that you get these ideas from NC cash 5 lottery players who have already experienced winning the big prize through careful planning and strategizing whenever they play. Here are some NC cash 5 lottery tips that can boost your chances of winning:

    -Always remember that even in the Cash 5 lottery, the numbers are drawn randomly, so one way of choosing particular winning numbers is to use the potential of probabilities. For example, choosing a good mix of odd and even numbers using probability is a good strategy to use. You can choose at least 3 even numbers and 2 odd numbers, or the other way around. This way, your chances of getting a winning set of lotto numbers is high as compared to only picking odd or even numbers.

    -Avoid using arithmetic sequences when picking out the lotto numbers. A lot of NC cash 5 lottery tips will tell you that this isn’t going to improve your chances at winning simply because the numbers are drawn randomly and cannot be predicted as such. So if you really want to win in this game, avoid picking numbers that come in sequences like 3, 6, 9, 12, etc.

    -Believe it or not, the sum of the chosen 5 numbers in your lotto ticket can also be a basis for the winning combination. According to some of the NC cash 5 lottery tips, numbers that add up to a range of 75 – 125 have a good chance at winning since normally 60-70% of the lottery winning numbers add up to a number within that range.


    Source by Matthew Donaldson

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    Secrets to Success: Success Is Simple – Do What’s Right, the Right Way, at the Right Time


    Realize your Potential

    In order to succeed at anything, you need to see that you have the potential to reach your goals. For example, if you want to be a recording artist but have no singing ability, having success in this field is not likely. However, if you love working on cars and have a real talent for fixing engines and transmissions, and to you, success would mean working for NASCAR, you have potential to learn and achieve that success.

    Don’t Look Back

    Everyone has failures or mistakes from the past. To have success, you need to learn from your past and value those difficult lessons but do not every dwell on the past. Simply move forward and make better, more educated decisions from the lessons learned.

    Dare to Dream

    To succeed, you need to have dreams and aspirations. Be honest with yourself as to what you want out of life and what you want to give of your life. Allow your mind to dream and think big.

    Don’t Give Up

    To reach success, you have to persevere. Even Thomas Edison had to learn this. When he was creating the incandescent light bulb, it took him more than 10,000 times to get it right. Keep striving even when it becomes challenging.

    Have an Unstoppable Attitude

    You need to have determination. With good intentions, there may be a close friend or family member that feels it would be better if you focused your attention in another direction. Uphold your unstoppable attitude, determined to succeed.

    Stop the Complaining

    You might think there is no correlation between complaining and success when in fact there is a connection. When you are spending time complaining about the obstacles you are facing, you are wasting so much time being negative that you are actually losing chances to move forward. Instead of thinking of challenges as problems, think of them as opportunities.

    Focus on Something you Like

    To increase your chance of succeeding, you should concentrate your efforts on something you enjoy. When you start out, make a list of everything you find interesting. Then in a second column, write down the skills you have in relation to each of those items. This will help you narrow choices down based on interest and skill, which gets you started in the right direction for success.

    Accept Responsibility

    You need to accept responsibility if you make a bad decision or fall behind in your plan. Let us say that you have set some firm milestones that need to be accomplished in order for you to move to the next step. However, you got tired of working hard and took some time to play, which is fine as long as it does not affect your goals. Now months have passed and you are way behind schedule. This delay has closed several doors of opportunities. Who is to blame?

    Be Happy

    A positive mind and happy, upbeat attitude will help you succeed. It has been proven in many studies that a person living in a happy state generally gets much further in just about everything they do. This relates to attitude. Just as bad attitude can pull you down, good attitude and a happy, healthy mind will help you meet your objectives.

    No Shortcuts

    An old cliche states, “Anything worth doing is worth doing well.” This should be your motto. When you want to succeed, you cannot afford to take shortcuts. Taking shortcuts leads to imperfection and inadequacies. Always strive for the best, even if it requires a little more time and effort.

    Have Courage

    Depending on what your specific success is, it may take courage to arrive at your desired destination. For example, if you have a dream of being a writer and to you, that is success, but according to your long line of family members who have all gone on to be doctors, the only success in their minds is if you follow down the medical path. This means you will have to have courage to stand up for what you believe and desire to do, even if it means disappointing family.

    Be Excited to Learn

    Referring back to the analogy of Edison, when asked about his failures by a young boy, Edison commented, “Young man, I didn’t fail 9,999 times, I discovered 9,999 ways not to invent the light bulb.” As you work toward your specific success, always enjoy opportunities to learn, even if it takes longer than you think it should.

    Share your Success

    Although this may be more at the end of the process, it is important. When you finally do reach your success, use your experience to teach, guide, and mentor others so that they too might succeed.

    Seek Input

    Whatever your idea of success, conduct a “sanity check” throughout the process of …

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    Pass The EPPP (Examination For Professional Practice in Psychology)


    To pass the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology (EPPP) you need help, a strategy. You can not just walk in to an examination center, sit down, and pass this examination without preparing. 

    How Important is the EPPP?

    The EPPP is one of the most important tests a psychologist will ever sit for. 

    No matter how well you did in your graduate school classes. No matter how great you did on comprehensive examinations. Or how brilliant your dissertation defense was. Or how many journals accepted articles based on your dissertation. You may have been the star at your internship. Your internship director may have held you up as the model intern. Yet, despite it all…

    If You Don’t Pass the EPPP…

    If you fail the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology you will have very limited practice opportunities in the US or Canada. You will, virtually, be unable to practice anywhere without passing the it. At least not in any state or province that has a board of psychology that is a member of the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). The only exceptions to requiring you to pass this exam being Prince Edward Island and Quebec. Yet even Quebec requires applicants from outside the province to pass the exam before they are allowed to practice.

    The list of professional activities that you are restricted from when you are not licensed is long: You can’t have private patients. You can’t get insurance company reimbursement. You can’t print “Licensed Psychologist” on your business cards. Many employers require that you be licensed. Basically, if you can’t pass the EPPP you’ll have thrown away years of graduate study and thousands of dollars on education, and all the sacrifices you made.

    The EPPP Defined

    The EPPP is the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. Every psychologist who wants to hang out a shingle in any state in the USA or in almost any province in Canada needs to successfully complete it.

    Who Makes the EPPP?

    An organization in Montgomery, AL creates and markets the EPPP to State and Provincial psychology boards.

    Content of the EPPP

    The EPPP contains these 8 domains: Ethical, legal, and professional issues, Treatment, intervention, and prevention, Social and multi-cultural bases of behavior, Biological bases of behavior, Assessment and diagnosis, Cognitive-affective bases of behavior, Research methods and statistics, and Growth and life-span development.

    EPPP Administration

    The EPPP is made up of two hundred twenty-five multiple choice questions. The examinee has four hours and fifteen minutes exactly, to finish the exam.

    The exam is administered via computer. The examinee locates and sits for the exam at a Prometric Test Center.

    It’s natural to assume that having attained a PhD or PsyD in psychology, having passed an accredited graduate program in psychology, completed an internship, and defended a dissertation or research project you would be able to easily pass the exam. Or perhaps pass it with a bit of review. But nothing could be further from the truth.

    Why EPPP Questions are Difficult

    On the EPPP, examinees must pick the “best” answer, not necessarily the “right” answer. Wording is often inverse. Questions may specify “all are true except” or “all are false except.” Discriminating fine differences between the answers on this psychology exam can be very challenging.

    The questions on the exam require you to not only be familiar with each of the eight domains, but to demonstrate the application of that knowledge.

    It is not realistic to believe that you can prepare minimally for the EPPP, or prepare in the same manner you have in the past for examinations. Nor is it realistic to prepare minimally and simply plan on continually retesting until you pass the test. There are several reasons for this.

    EPPP Registration Expenses

    One reason that makes it unrealistic to keep retesting is the high cost. Each administration of the EPPP costs you $450. Each sitting at the Prometric Test Center to sit for the psychology exam costs $68.

    State and Provincial psychology boards require the payment of licensing and administration fees before you are allowed to take the exam. You must obtain an Authorization to Test letter from your psychology board before the ASPPB will allow you to register for the psychology examination. Psychology board costs related to licensing and sitting for the exam, depending on where you live, can be upwards of a thousand dollars.

    How Many Times Can I Take the EPPP?

    Another reason it is unrealistic to repeatedly retake the EPPP is that there are limitations on how many times you can take it. The ASPPB restricts you to taking the exam four times annually, while your local psychology board may restrict you even further. After a certain number of unsuccessful attempts on the Examination for the Professional Practice of Psychology …

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    Interior Decorating Ideas – Decorating Your Clinic with Wall Art


    Have you ever been at the clinic, waiting for your turn to see the doctor, and all you see on the walls around you are posters on cancer prevention, reminders for you to do your annual medical checkups, dealing with rheumatism in old age, diabetes … the list goes on.

    All around us, we're flooded with uncomfortable images and messages that remind us that we really need to take good care of our health. Although these posters are there for a reason – to inform and educate, they certainly add an unwelcome addition because they inject an element of fear into all of us. Here we are, waiting to see the doctor, worried sick that that illness could get worse, and all we see in front of us are images and information about illnesses and disease. We really do not need these at this time. Tell us these things when we're well, not when we're sick.

    Having been a patient myself (and who has not), the waiting area at the doctor's office is quite a stressful place to be. As you're waiting for your turn to see the doctor, your mind is full of apprehension and uncertainty as to what the diagnosis might be. The last thing you want is to be bombarded with images and media detailing out a plethora of possible ailments you could have diagnosed with. It just adds to the stress.

    Strip this entire media off the walls, I say. Remove every shred of evidence that this place is a clinic. Patients do not need reminders as to why they're there. Put in its place decorative art work. Surround the walls with art and beauty. Put some framed pictures on the assistant's counter top. Having a beautiful piece of art to look at will certainly make your wait a lot more pleasant and take your thoughts away from all things unpleasant. Art may also accelerate the healing process. This is the reason why some hospitals have beautiful art hung on its walls. This is what the patient really needs.

    What kind of art to display, you might ask. Well, apart from movie or music posters, because they hardly seem appropriate, almost any other kind of art will do. A good choice would be abstract art. Pick something that has soft, pastel colors that calms the mind when looked upon. Abstract, or contemporary art, does not represent anything in its true form, but rather it is an abstract representation of it. Much of it is left for the user to interpret what it's all about. This will certainly keep the patients busy as they wait their turn. Abstract art will give the place a nice contemporary feel and make it seem less like a clinic and more like an art gallery.

    There are many choices of abstract art to choose from. Prints of abstract flowers will add a nice, warm touch to the office. What about black and white abstracts? This will create an interesting contrast with the colors around it. You could also display abstract art of other genres, like collages, geometric abstracts, abstract landscapes and abstract figures, among others. The choices are plentiful. If you're not into contemporary art, why not use pictures of animals? A picture of a cute kitten or puppy can do wonders to encourage healing and comfort. If you can not keep a real pet in the doctor's office, then display a picture of one. The effect may not be the same, but it certainly is nice to look at and takes a great deal of stress off the patient.


    Source by Edwin Mah

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    Having Clear Objectives for Corporate Events


    Putting an event together for clients and staff can be very straight forward to arrange or indeed somewhat of a daunting task depending on the objectives you wish to achieve.

    It is really worth taking a moment to understand what the objectives are for the event. Is it to thank everyone for their hard work, get different groups of people communicating, to bring clients and prospects together or to simply have a great time with the chosen audience? Whatever it may be, you need to think about the objective of your event prior to hosting.

    Keeping Everyone Engaged

    If you have put together a number of corporate events, it can be difficult to come up with something different, engaging and entertaining for the whole group. It can be challenging with many corporate activities being “just an activity”. The norm is to do the activity, hope that everyone enjoys themselves and simply remembers the event in a positive light. However, if you host an event which ties in with your corporate or event objectives the activity has more impact, especially if the event involves an activity which enables everyone to participate and enjoy at their own levels.

    There are a number of new activities springing up which offer something new and exciting for the corporate entertainment market, many using technology to entertain in very clever and interesting ways.

    Amongst the new kids on the block and especially topical with the start of Formula One racing, are venues which have multiple race car simulators. This activity works well as most adults are able to drive and therefore have no problem actually taking part in the event. The added bonus for participants in this corporate event is that by using race car simulators no one will be hurt no matter how competitive they become!

    With the right audience using race car simulators for a corporate event provides those involved with an engaging activity which is fun, safe and encourages a mixture of people to work together. Race car simulators are a good example of an activity where everyone can join in, work as a team and aim towards a common goal.

    Most events, including race car simulators, have some down time when the activity is still running and your team is still taking part. This time provides those involved with the activity with an opportunity to network and spend time relaxing with colleagues and clients, so is a positive element to the day.

    Team Building

    The term ‘Team Building’ is used a great deal but often there is no actual team building element within the activity. If you are looking to ‘Team Build’ then it needs to be just that, an activity where people have to work together towards a common goal. Where as a team they can achieve and experience success, such as that achieved when using race car simulators. Depending on your overall objective, this could be to get different departments interacting and communicating together or it may be to get a single department working better together.

    Decision Time

    Once you have decided on your event style and objective you will be able to focus on what you really want out of the event. This will help you to decide on the activity which will be used to meet your expectations and achieve your outcomes, whether this is a sedate activity or something a little fresher and interactive, such as using one of the newer race car simulators available at race centres.

    Whether you are looking to book a meal for four or a team event for 100, remember to be aware of your event objectives and how the event will best be tailored to meet your corporate event objectives. You should find advice, guidance and support from reputable centres about achieving your objectives from those used to hosting corporate events, such as the manager at the Race Centre in Hampshire, who will demonstrate how to use their race car simulators and encourage team building.


    Source by Jonathan Elder

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    Marketing Art on Demographics, Psychographics, and Behavior


    Many would argue that starting a business in these tough economic times is not prudent at least, especially a business characterized by a low inventory turnover and a very high elasticity of demand. In the short run, one would not expect a high return on investment from such a business, but with a well defined long-term strategy in place starting any business now is not such a bad idea. First, many companies that have been in existence for at least five years are on the brink of bankruptcy. Their fixed assets overshoot their current decreased demand and their debt-to-equity ratios are high. It means less competition. Second, when the economy starts picking up, your start-up will be well-positioned to go up with the tidal wave carrying little or no debt and built “tough, lean and mean.”

    Art might be not such an easy sell now, but it is not necessarily the case in a better economic environment. Let us examine the consumer spending patterns on art in Canada.

    o Canadian consumers spent $22.8 billion on cultural goods and services in 2003, an amount that is greater than spending on tobacco, alcohol and games of chance combined.

    o The $22.8 billion in consumer spending is over three times more than government spending on culture in Canada.

    o Culture is a growth market: Consumer spending on cultural goods and services grew by 36% between 1997 and 2003, much higher than inflation (14%) and population growth (6%).

    o Canadians spent $1.2 billion on books (excluding school books) in 2003, 34% more than in 1997 (not adjusted for inflation).

    o Spending on live performing arts was $980 million on in 2003, a 31% increase from 1997.

    o Canadians spent $530 million on works of art, carvings and vases in 2003, 48% more than in 1997.

    o Consumer spending on admissions to museums and heritage sites totaled $410 million in 2003, 23% more than in 1997.

    o In comparison, consumer spending on live sporting events was $530 million in 2003.

    o 49% of Canadian households spent some money on books (excluding school books) in 2003.

    o 37% of households spent money on live performing arts.

    o 11% of households spent money on works of art, carvings and vases.

    People do spend on art. People are likely to rely on local artists if they have a choice and the total cost is affordable. Culture and art are growing in Canada. The trend is likely to go up despite the present economic slowdown.

    Winnipeg Demographics

    I cannot emphasize more that demographics is the key variable in any marketing effort. It is not a coincidence that many companies spend fortunes on conducting primary demographic research prior to developing a new business segment or entering a new market. Art is especially sensitive to demographic segmentation. Thus knowing your customer is key to your success. Let us examine Winnipeg demographics to substantiate the points above.

    1. According to the 2006 Census, there were 633,451 people residing in Winnipeg itself and a total of 694,668 inhabitants in the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area on 16 May 2006, and 711,455 in the Winnipeg Capital Region making it Manitoba’s largest city and the eighth largest CMA in Canada.

    2. Of the city population, 48.3% were male and 51.7% were female. 24.3% were 19 years old or younger, people aged by 20 and 39 years accounted for 27.4%, and those between 40 and 64 made up 34.0% of the population.

    3. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7, compared to an average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.

    4. Between the censuses of 2001 and 2006, Winnipeg’s population increased by 2.2%, compared to the average of 2.6% for Manitoba and 5.4% for Canada. The population density of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,365.2 people per square kilometer, compared with an average of 3.5 for Manitoba.

    5. The population of the City of Winnipeg is estimated at 672,300 as of July 1, 2009 and that of the census metropolitan area at 739,300.

    Understanding Psychographics

    Psychographics or lifestyle analysis is essentially the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living. Psychographics are generally expressed as Activities, Interests, and Opinions. A detailed lifestyle analysis is likely to help new businesses in a number of ways. First, the analysis will help in planning an effective marketing strategy. Second, understanding lifestyle patterns will help in developing good advertising themes and web content. Third, lifestyle analysis helps designers to further improve interior and exterior designs.

    There is a need to critically understand the spending patterns of people, especially on art and culture, how can they be facilitated by an improved online shopping experience which not only connects them to local artists but also provides many useful services as well.


    To effectively tap the target …

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    The Disadvantages of the Weight Watchers Program


    For those are looking to lose weight effectively, the Weight Watchers Program might prove to be the solution that you are looking for. There are plenty of advantages to look forward to when we speak of the Weight Watchers Program, nevertheless this program does come with its own limitations and disadvantages. Let us look at some the drawbacks of the Weight Watcher Program:

    1. It may prove to be expensive for some. This program has its registration or signing on fee, as well as a weekly fee that you have to pay every time you attend a meeting. Although you can cancel your membership at any time, this is quite unlikely as this program is quite effective, and you would not want to leave a plan that works. Thus once you sign up, you would definitely be able to lose weight, but the cost may be prohibitive for some. Make sure you can afford the program before you sign up.

    2. It works based on a group-atmosphere, which does not suit everyone. Many of us out there prefer working individually and would not feel too comfortable in a group-situation, thus ensure that you can work in this type of an atmosphere before you sign up.

    3. Weekly progress checks might prove to be discouraging to some. As weekly weigh-ins is needed, this may prove to be a hassle for those who cannot commit to the weekly meetings. And if you do not reach your intended target every week, you might lose motivation and feel discouraged with your failure to lose the amount of weight that you want to. Most people prefer programs that monitor weight on a monthly basis so that they can see a significant difference compared to the last weigh-in, thus weekly weigh-ins may prove to be a discouragement for some.

    4. There is no set diet or nutritional plan on the Weight Watchers Program. IF you signed up hoping that this program would provide you with a complete and structured diet of what to eat and when to eat them, you have been mistaken. This program does not provide you with diet plans, it allows you to choose whatever you feel like eating, only that they make you record what you eat. This feature of being able to choose to eat whatever that you want could prove deadly for some, as you might be tempted to finish all your Points on not-so-healthy food, and this could prove to be unhealthy for you.

    Concluding, the Weight Watchers Program does come with its own set of limitations, thus make sure that you understand how this program works completely before you sign up for it.

    Click Here to take a quiz to identify your metabolic type.


    Source by Ron T Cody

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    Mad Dogs by Vettriano


    Mad Dogs by Jack Vettriano is a famous oil painting by this Scottish painter who has risen in recent years to become one of the most popular contemporary artists within Europe and has a large fan base right across this continent plus North America. This article discusses the Mad Dogs painting and puts it into context within the career of Jack Vettriano up to now.

    Mad Dogs follows a similar style to Vettriano’s best known painting of the Singing Butler which has itself become one of the most frequent reproduction art prints of any in the world currently. Both these paintings feature classically dressed characters relaxing on a beach, some holding umbrellas which is another symbol that Vettriano has become well remembered for.

    Besides Mad Dogs, Vettriano used produced other classic prints and paintings such as The Singing Butler, And So to Bed, Bad Boy, Her Secret Life, Just Another Day, Blades, In Thoughts of You, The Temptress, On Parade, Beautiful Dreamer, Queen of Diamonds II, Dance Me to the End of Love and The Missing Man II.

    For those who appreciate reproductions for their own homes of Vettriano’s classic paintings, this Dogs would perfectly suit a framed art print or poster because of his own particular style. Some Vettriano prints are also available as limited editions and they themselves could make good investments for the future.

    In conclusion, Mad Dogs will remain one of the most charming and popular paintings from the career of Jack Vettriano for many years to come even as more great works are added to his back catalogue over the coming years when many expect the Scottish painter to go from strength to strength and build an even more impressive and respected reputation within the art world.


    Source by Tom Gurney

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    Vision India – 2025 (Expectations of an Ordinary Person)



    The way one lyrist has written, “Hum logo ko samajh sako to samjho dilbar jaani; jitna bhi tum samjhoge utni hogi hayerani”…in a nut-shell we Indian’s are most “unpredictable”. When the expectations are low…we have performed really well and contrary to that when expectations were very high…most of the time we have failed to live up to those expectations.

    As we are going to complete 58 yrs of independence on 15th August 2005, it is a pleasure to share with you the facts about India, Vision India 2025 (From Ordinary person’s point of View), and India in 21st Century.

    From Independence…till now

    India was a British colony. It earned its independence from the British on 15th August 1947. Day before that Pakistan which was created as a result of partition of British India was established and flanked on two sides of India: West Pakistan which is called today Pakistan, and east Pakistan, now an independent state called Bangladesh. After its independence, the political leaders of India adopted the liberal democratic system for the country.

    Since its independence, India has transformed a lot. When India attained independence in 1947, its population was around 400 million people. Now there are billion people in India. India is the largest democracy in the world. It has the biggest number of people with franchise rights and the largest number of Political Parties, which take part in election campaign.

    Before its independence, India was never a single country but a bunch of different entities. Many predicted that India, because of diversities in its cultures, religion, languages, castes, manners, local histories, nationalities and identities, would not survive as a single democratic country, but would break up into smaller countries.

    Since independence, India had many political problems. During independence the most burning issues were the riots between the Hindus and Muslims while the Sikhs were siding with Hindus. Another issue was convincing the Princely states not to declare independence or join Pakistan but to join the Indian Union. India also had a few wars with its neighbors on border issues.

    India also has many internal problems. Different communities with different identities – regional, language, caste, religion – demanded different rights for their communities. Some communities demanded more autonomy for their cultures within the Indian states. Others demanded autonomous states within the Indian Union, while the others demanded to be independent from India.

    With all its problems India survives as a single state with democratic character.

    How much do you know about India? (India – Fact File)

    Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

    Population: 1,080,264,388 (July 2005 est.)

    Population Growth Rate: 1.4% (2005 est.)

    Life expectancy: 64.35 years

    Sex ratio: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

    Composition of Religion: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)

    Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

    Administrative Break-up: 28 states and 7 union territories

    Executive Heads: President A.P.J. Abdul KALAM (since 26 July 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 August 2002)

    Head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since May 2004)

    Economic Overview: India’s diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, though two-thirds of the workforce is in agriculture. The UPA government has committed to furthering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced in some areas, but high tariffs (averaging 20% in 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still in place. The government has indicated it will do more to liberalize investment in civil aviation, telecom, and insurance sectors in the near term. Privatization of government-owned industries has proceeded slowly, and continues to generate political debate; continued social, political, and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6.8% since 1994, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the World Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit, running at approximately 9% of GDP. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental …

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    His Most Famous Painting (The Bonaventure Pine in St Tropez) – Paul Signac


    French ‘Neo-Impressionist’ painter Paul Signac or Paul Victor Jules Signac (11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was born into a bourgeois family in Paris. Paul aimed architecture as his career, until he dropped the idea at the age of eighteen to start a career in painting. He voyaged near the coasts of Europe, painting the scenery he came across. Later on, Paul also painted the landscapes of cities in France. The turning point of Signac’s painting career was in 1884, when he met Georges Seurat and Claude Monet. The disciplined working techniques of Seurat and his ideas of colors impressed Signac. Inspired by Seurat, Paul abandoned the tiny brushstrokes of ‘Impressionism’ to trail with technically juxtaposed minute dots of pure colors, planned to mixed and blend not only on the canvas, but also in the spectator’s eye, the defining trait of ‘Pointillism.’ Paul’s most famous painting “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez (Le pin de Bonaventura a Saint-Tropez)” is a stunner. His other famous works include ‘Port St. Tropez and,’ ‘Saint Tropez,’ and ‘The Papal Palace.’

    Created in 1892, “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is an oil on canvas ‘Landscape Painting.’ In his painting, Signac captures a huge Umbrella Pine in St. Tropez, on a canvas of 25″ x 32″. The artist painted the bright light shining off the deep surface of pine needles, sea, and the grass covered land. The painting reflects a perfect blend of sky, earth, and sea. The background of “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is an abstraction of green, white, blue, yellow, and orange. The landscape behind the Bonaventure Pine tree, the cloudy sky, the mountain, and the boat sailing in the sea, promise the beauty and the passivity of the painting. Paul repeatedly placed consistently shaped dots of pigments stream and swirls, defining lustrous contours.

    The best part of “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is the usage of many dots of paint like light pixel. Through ‘Pointillism,’ Paul mixes light from far away into the retina of the eye and lets the brain do the mixing of the color instead of him mixing the color on the canvas. “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” in fact, is a painting of contemporary movement, which departs from the usual ‘Photo-Realism’ of the time.

    By 1900, Paul Signac moved away from ‘Pointillism,’ as he never stopped himself to one medium. He experimented with watercolors, oil paintings, pen-and-ink sketches, etchings, and lithographs. Until his death in 1935, Paul was the president of the annual Salon des Independent (Society of Independent Artists). He was a motivation mainly for André Derain, Henri Matisse and to various other amateur painters, as he inspired them towards the work of ‘Fauves’ and the ‘Cubists,’ thereby also leveraging the growth of ‘Fauvism.’ “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is presently displayed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA.


    Source by Annette Labedzki