A Guide To Printing Your Own Pictures, Text and Designs Onto Glass Surfaces

Decorating glass techniques vary as widely as the potential glass projects themselves. Here are a small number of popular projects that you may be considering:

Stained glass effects and simple designs are popular especially in period style properties, small alcoves, porch and front doors as well as adding finishing touches to glass windows on stairs.

Wine and beer glasses
Printing styled and coloured text is often seen on many pub glasses and effects can vary from frosted to brand logos, engraved and raised print.

Decorated mirrors tend to be a little more subtle, maybe a design in the mirrors corner or small sets of draws with mirror fronts can often have printed silhouettes on them.

Clip frames
Clip frames often have printed border decorations to enhance the beauty of your favourite pictures. Flower borders and designs in corners are common.


Beginners embarking on their first glass painting projects often start with a selection of plain glass vases to decorate. Again flowers head the list of popular designs as they lend themselves very well to outliner and glass colour inks.

Decorating glass – techniques, options and expectations

Glass printing techniques vary as widely as the potential projects but for sure, certain techniques are far simpler than others. It all depends on what you need to achieve. For example, let us say that you needed to print “Congratulations Susan and James” onto several glass vases for their wedding day. As this is a one off event, this project could easily be achieved with waterslide papers.

Waterslide papers are fantastic for transferring any image, picture or text that you’ve printed, onto virtually any hard surface. Projects are not dishwasher safe but as the effect is required for one day only, this would be the correct choice as pictures of flowers or other images could also be placed next to the text without any additional effort.

How to use waterslide decal papers for decorating glass

Packs of waterslide papers often come in 5’s or 10 A4 sheets which is enough for potentially hundreds of decal slip designs. If you have an inkjet printer you will also need to purchase some clear varnish spray. If you have a laser printer, clear varnish is not required.

Start by printing your text and / or picture onto the shiny side of the waterslide paper. Waterslide paper acts like regular paper and will travel through your printer in the same way.

Once your design is printed, wait for around 30 minutes to dry before spraying a layer of clear varnish on. (Inkjet only) Apply a couple more coats of clear varnish in quick even bursts to seal the print on the paper. This is necessary as the next stage is to dip your design into water for around 30 seconds.

The backing paper will then start to slide off, enabling you to remove from the water and slide the film containing your design, onto the glass surface. You will have several moments to reposition your design whilst gently removing any remaining water from underneath your design with your fingers and thumbs. The design will start to harden onto the glass over the next couple of hours.

Reasons for not using waterslide decal papers on glass

If the glass surface that you wish to decorate is going to be exposed to the elements or washed in water, you may want to consider other permanent options if possible.

Decorating glass with glass paints

With a little artistic ability a permanent effect can be achieved with some tracing paper, outliner and glass paint.

If your glass surface is flat like a glass coaster for instance, place the glass horizontally and trace the outline of your design onto the glass. If your glass is rounded you will need to fix the design to trace onto the inside of the glass.

Obtain some glass paint and cern outliner. Vitrea as a brand are a good choice and both glass paint and outliner are dishwasher proof once fixed in an oven at around 150c for 30 minutes.

The purpose of starting with your outline is to prevent your colours from bleeding into each other. Take a simple design like a flower for instance and imagine drawing a stem and several petal outlines around the top of the stem.

Your cern outliner comes with a precision tip. Create your outline by squeezing a little outliner into a tissue to check there are no blockages or airbubbles in the nozzles tip. As you work, keep wiping the tip. This will help prevent lines becoming too thick.

The next step would be to fill each petal with colour.

Start by applying the paint generously by puddling the paint or using a pipette. This will give a flat, stained-glass effect. To get a lighter colour …

Pros and Cons of Watching Television

Many of us love watching TV especially during our free time and if we don’t have anything to do. We like watching TV while eating our favorite snacks or hanging around in a friend’s place. Either way we are entertained when we watch TV. There are many different programs we can watch on TV depending on our mood and our personality. Some love watching comedy and talk shows while others particularly kids and those who are young at heart love watching cartoons on Cartoon Network or Disney channel.

But then, watching TV has its advantages and disadvantages. Experts say that too much watching of TV especially among children is not good for the health and the mind. TV can be entertaining and informative yet at times it can be damaging and harmful.

Below are the Pros and Cons of watching TV.


1.) Entertainment and Laughter

We are entertained by shows we love to watch. We laugh at things we find funny and comical in the TV program we are watching. We also love to dance or sing along with celebrities we see on TV and some of us even copy their dance moves and singing styles.

2.) Information and How-To

We learn a lot of information about places and people that we usually don’t learn on magazines, books and newspapers. There are travel shows that show us beautiful places in the world and inform us the culture of different countries which can be a great help especially if we are planning to travel. We also easily learn how to cook new recipes by watching cooking shows and we can learn doing some other stuff through programs that show step-by-step procedures of performing a particular work, exercise or other interesting stuff.

3.) Improve Memory and Easy Learning

We usually take note of the time schedule for our favorite programs especially if it is only shown once or twice a week. We tend to store and recall the things that recently happened in our favorite show before the next episode will be shown on TV. This will help enhance our memory which we can apply on our daily life. For children, it is easier to learn math, science, alphabet and other subject matters if someone can show them how to do it like counting, identifying objects and a lot more. Educational TV shows are available for children to watch and learn.

4.) Bonding With Family and Friends

Watching TV is a great way to bond with family and friends especially on weekends. You can laugh and discuss things that you see on TV. That can be really fun.

5.) Awareness and Alertness

Weather reports and current news on different parts of the worlds can make you aware of what is happening outside your country. You can also be alert when there is an incoming typhoon in your area and that can help you get prepared.


1.) Decline in creativity and imagination.

TV shows including commercials have tendency to share their creative works on us and impart their ideas and opinions on us which is not favorable and can lead to a decline in our creativity and imagination since we can not think on our own since creative stuff are readily available and shared to us.

2.) Health problems

We usually eat junk foods or any of our favorite snacks while watching TV. This is not good for our health because we tend to eat a lot while we are sitting down facing the television. This can lead to obesity since we don’t move a lot when we watch TV. This can also lead to other serious ailments caused by eating a lot and moving less.

3.) Makes people lazy

Most of us get hooked when watching programs of our favorite TV channel. We sometimes even forget to do our work or other important things because we got engaged in the show we are watching. Some people forget to do their household chores because they would rather watch TV than work.

4.) Some shows don’t teach good values.

There are TV programs that do not teach good values particularly to children. Instead of teaching them good deeds they even imitate, re-enact or spoof important things happening around us which is not good for children to watch.

To sum up, in watching TV you should choose and monitor the TV programs that you and your children should watch. Choose programs that can help you learn and grow as a person. You should also limit the time your children spend in watching TV. The maximum number of hours small kids should watch TV is 3 hours while for teenagers you should make sure they watch good shows only when they are done with homework and projects.

Source by Jimmy Hermann

Music and Art of the Philippines

Filipino music and art have both been influenced by the cultures that have migrated to this nation. The first type of music that developed in the Philippines was indigenous music brought here by native tribes that migrated from Taiwan. There are three basic groups of indigenous music styles: southern styles, northern styles and other styles. The southern style of music usually involves five different instruments including the kulintang, the agung, the gangdinagan, the dabakan and the babedil. The northern styles of indigenous music reflect Asian gong music. Their music usually features the unbossed gong called the Gangsa. In addition to the instruments used by southern and northern music styles, other instruments used in the Philippines include log drums, flutes, bamboo zithers and the Kudyapi.

Hispanic cultures from Spain and Mexico have greatly influenced the development of Filipino music. These cultures have introduced musical forms like the Harana the Kundiman and Rondalla. Most of these music forms developed as a result of the fusion between tribal music styles and traditional Spanish and Mexican music. Today the influence of Spain and Mexico is still present in modern Filipino music. Modern popular music in the Philippines still has a Hispanic flavor.

Filipino Art has its roots in indigenous traditions and colonial imports. Like most cultures, the Philippines have their own style of plastic arts like sculpture and painting. However, they also have their own style of movement arts like dancing. Some of the most notable artists from the Philippines include Fernando Amorsolo, David Cortes Medalla, Nunelucio Alvardao, Juan Luna, Felix Hidalgo and Rey Paz Contreras.

Source by Sarah Freeland

How Did Facebook Become So Popular?

Have You Heard Of Facebook?

By now, you are probably familiar with the popular social-networking website called Facebook.

According to Wikipedia, Facebook has more than 19 million registered users across 47,000 regional, work-related, college or high-school networks.

I Was Skeptical At First

Initially, I was very reluctant to embrace the Facebook phenomenon. However, my friends kept asking me “Hey Vincent, are you on Facebook?”…”Did you join Facebook yet” “You need to visit Facebook.” This went on for weeks.

Surprisingly, when I checked my Hotmail account, I also received invites from dozens of friends including Andre, David, Trisha, Renee and Kevin

How Did Facebook Become So Popular, So Fast?

Finally, I decided to visit this website called Facebook. Once and for all, I wanted to discover why Facebook is so popular. I wanted to know how they managed to gain millions of members in a few short months? How did they become so big, so fast? I had to know the truth. I wanted to know their secret!

Facebook’s Secret Exposed

Aside from having an easy to navigate layout, the ability to keep tabs on friends, great content, and, amazing search capabilities, Facebook is utilizing one of the most powerful viral marketing strategies ever conceived.

It’s so simple, but yet extremely powerful.

Once my account was created, I immediately clicked on the friends tab. I noticed a drop down menu with several options including Invite Friends. Once clicked, I was taken to a page that allowed me to Import Email Addresses from my Yahoo, Hotmail, AOL, and Gmail.

I was also greeted with the following message:

“Enter your email login info below and Facebook will securely import your contacts from

your address book.”

I simply inserted my email address and password and instantly all 78 of my Hotmail contacts appeared before me. With one click of a button, I was able to invite all my contacts to join Facebook.

I Quickly Realized The Power of This Application After using this tool to instantly invite all 78 of my Hotmail contacts; I quickly realized the power of this application! What impressed me the most was how simple it was to import and invite all of my contacts. Unlike traditional tell-a-friend forms, it only took a few seconds to invite 78 people using Facebook’s PHP address book importer.

By implementing this viral marketing strategy, Facebook has become one the most popular websites online.

5 Reasons Why Traditional Tell-A-Friend Forms Are Obsolete!

  • They forced your visitors to manually input email addresses.
  • Your visitors must also manually type the name beside each email address.
  • Most forms only have around 10 input fields. Remember, the average person, has over 100 web mail contacts. Why limit yourself?
  • People are lazy. Nobody wants to sit around and insert dozens of email addresses into your form!
  • Ongoing subscription fees.

Once you make the decision to upgrade to a PHP address book importer. You will need to implement a variety of marketing strategies to maximize your success. In other words, simply installing such a script is NOT good enough.

3 Viral Marketing Strategies You MUST Do In Order To EXPLODE Your Online Business

Strategy #1: Motivate Your Visitors!

Let’s get real. We live in a very selfish world. I’m sure you have a fabulous website. However, nobody is going tell his or her friends about it without asking the following question what’s in it for me? You will be surprised what people will do if you provide the right incentive! Offering Free Giveaways is a good place to start.

Strategy #2: Don’t Hide Your Tell-A-Friend Link

Hiding your link is a huge mistake. This is very frustrating to me. Most webmasters will place their tell-a-friend link at the bottom of their web page. They place it in some remote area of their web page and wonder why nobody uses it.

You must add your tell-a-friend link to the main navigation of your website. For example, most websites will have “About us”Contact Us” “Products” added to the primary navigation. Your tell-a-friend link must also be added to the primary navigation of your website.

Strategy #3: It’s All In The Name

Here’s an idea. Instead of using the same boring link title “tell-a-friend” Why not say “Free Ipod” “Free Coupon”, “Free E-Book” This will cause your visitors to actually click on the link. At that point, you can provide contest details / instructions.

Viral marketing is not a fad or gimmick. It’s a real marketing strategy that can increase the profitability of your business. Adding a PHP address book importer to your arsenal will instantly provide your visitors an easy way of inviting others to your website.

Facebook is already utilizing the new technology, shouldn’t you?

Source by Vincent Newton

Breathing Paint Fumes – What’s at Risk and How to Eliminate Paint Fumes From Your Air

 Paint is a relatively easy and inexpensive way to give a room or home a quick makeover. But what do you risk health wise by inhaling paint fumes and how can you eliminate them?


What you risk depends on the paint that was used. Oil paint or any paint that contains volatile organic chemicals has elements in it that evaporate easily into the air. Examples are solvents, thinners that maintain an even consistency, and drying agents that help the paint dry faster. These are often the ingredients that off gas and can make paint fumes so harmful.


You may first notice a headache, watery or burning eyes or nose, dry throat, light headedness, dizziness, or nausea. This is your body’s way of saying get me out of here and away from these paint fumes! Generally these symptoms will disappear if you are only exposed to the fumes for a very short time. But often paint will off gas fumes for weeks, forcing you and all who live in the newly painted space to continue to inhale these fumes over a long period of time.


Young children are particularly vulnerable to these fumes because their respiration is comparatively fast, and their bodies are smaller which means their bodies are subjected to much more of the paint fumes than a healthy adult. Pregnant mothers also risk harm to the developing fetus, and continued exposure can interfere with normal growth and development. Older adults are also more at risk many times because of pre-existing conditions such as heart problems, respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis, and/or an immune system that is in some way compromised.


There are paints available now that contain low and even no volatile organic chemicals. They are more expensive, but certainly worth the extra money for the health advantages they provide. But if you’ve moved into an apartment or newly constructed home, you may not have control over the paint that was used, and unless you act, you and your family may in fact be forced to just live in this unhealthy environment.


A high efficiency particle arresting (abbreviated as HEPA) air purifier that has a filter that specifically targets and removes these fumes can clear the air and make the air quality in your home healthy again. How does it do this? It is designed to run 24 hours a day to continuously removing these paint fumes from your air as soon as they off gas.


By opting for a HEPA air purifier you also get the added advantage of a cleaner that can remove other household particulates that may have resulted from new construction or a home makeover. This filter by definition is designed to remove normal household pollutants such as household dust, dust mites, mold and mildew spores, pollen, pet dander, bacteria and viruses all as small as .3 microns.


The best of these air cleaners contain 4 filters built into one easy-to-change canister, each with a different purpose making it a powerful yet compact and very efficient solution to removing paint fumes from your air.

Source by Debbie Davis

4 Excellent Films Commemorating the Battle of Little Big Horn

In honor of June 26, we would like to recommend the following historically “accurate” films: Son of the Morning Star, Little Big Man, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, and American Experience’s Emmy award winning documentary Last Stand at Little Big Horn

Between June 25 and 26, 1876, a combined force of Lakota and Northern Cheyenne led the United States 7th Cavalry into a battle near the Little Bighorn River in what was then the eastern edge of the Montana Territory. The engagement is known by several names: the Battle of Greasy Grass, the Battle of Little Big Horn, and Custer’s Last Stand. Perhaps the most famous action of the Indian Wars, it was a remarkable victory for Sitting Bull and his forces. They defeated a column of seven hundred men led by George Armstrong Custer; five of the Seventh’s companies were annihilated and Custer himself was killed in the engagement along with two of his brothers and a brother-in-law. Known as the battle that left no white survivors, Little Big Horn has inspired more than 1,000 works of art, including over 40 films. Here are four of the best…

Son of the Morning Star

Based on the 1984 best selling historical novel by Evan S, Connell, Son of the Morning Star won five Emmys when it first aired in 1991. Focusing on the life and times of General George Armstrong Custer, it takes up Custer’s life near the end of the American Civil War, follows him through his involvement in famous Indian wars, and culminates with the battle of Little Big Horne. I particularly like this version because it attempts to get beyond the stereotypes and introduce you to the real man; it provides an excellent introduction to the personalities involved and the events leading up to and following the battle.

Little Big Man,

The 1970 film Little Big Man, directed by Arthur Penn and starring Dustin Hoffman, was based on Thomas Berger’s 1964 fictionalized “historical” novel by the same name. Admittedly adjusted history, it tells the satirical, fictional and picaresque story of Jack Crabb; a white boy orphaned in a Pawnee raid and adopted by a Cheyenne warrior, he eventually becomes the only white survivor of the Battle of Little Big Horn. It is considered a “Revisionist Western” because Native Americans receive a sympathetic treatment that was uncommon for Western films in previous decades. Revisionist or not, I simply adore this wickedly humorous film about one man’s life revolving through the kaleidoscope of cultures that made up the American “Wild” West, and I recommend it with all my heart.

Bury My heart at Wounded Knee,

HBO’s 2007 adaptation of Bury My heart at Wounded Knee, a 1970 classic of Native American history by Dee Alexander Brown, recounts the struggle of the Indian Wars from the perspectives of three people: Charles Eastman, a young Sioux doctor who received his medical degree from Boston University in 1889; Sitting Bull, who led the combined forces at Little Big Horn and refused to submit to U.S. government policies that stripped his people of their dignity, identity, and sacred land; and Senator Henry Dawes, one of the men responsible for the government’s Indian affairs policy. The story line begins with the American Indian victory at Little Big Horn in 1876 and continues though to the shameful slaughter of Sioux warriors at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on December 29, 1890. If the film has any fault, it’s that it attempts to explain the whole deeply complex fourteen-year struggle in just over two hours. It manages to do an excellent job at providing an educational and entertaining overview for future investigation.

The American Experience: Last Stand at Little Big Horn

The American Experience: Last Stand at Little Big Horn takes the time to explore this controversial battle from two perspectives: The Lakota Sioux, Cheyenne, and Crow who had lived on the Great Plains for generations, and the white settlers who were moving west across the continent. Using journals, oral accounts, Indian ledger drawings and archival footage, James Welch and Paul Stekler combined their talents to create one of the most balanced documentaries about this event ever produced. Their efforts won them a much-deserved Emmy.

Source by Lynn Marie Sager

The Difference Between Combative Training and Martial Arts

Getting the facts straight


Recently, I was checking the sales ranking for my book on Amazon.com, when I noticed I have finally received a customer review on Amazon. After reading the review, I found myself humbled and dumb founded. The customer who reviewed my book on military knife and hand to hand combat was obviously a practicing martial artist.

He appeared to be one of the “Know it all” types as well. Although much of his review on the layout of my book may be spot on; I was amazed at his blatant ignorance in not knowing the difference between combative training and martial arts. In his own words,”Though the author may know what he is doing in this book, you may already as well. If you took some sort of M.A. class for any period of time that was worth anything, then you would have learned most if not half of these techniques for knife fighting. “ I must agree with him on this.

If you take some sort of  martial arts class for any period of time; that is worth anything; eventually you may learn half of the techniques in the book. Although I clearly state in the book that my attempt is not to teach specific techniques, but use techniques as a vehicle to drive home principles; and  I admit that there are countless numbers of techniques one can learn, not simply limited to my book. This guy  “Cliff” is the example of how many can not distinguish the difference between martial art and combative training.

Distinguishing the difference  

Before one can truly distinguish between a martial art or combative training, they must reflect upon the origin of today’s practiced martial arts. The term “martial art”, refers to a war like art; with martial referring to war. It is true that ages ago during the conception of today’s martial arts, the countless numbers of systems and styles were born from military drills and close quarters battle of the time. During the ancient times without the aid of today’s modern weaponry and fire power, soldiers were forced to engage in battle with clubs, swords, daggers, spears and often hand to hand. Warriors of those times began to develop tried and true systems of both armed and unarmed combat, much like today. They understood that military units must gain muscle memory in their tactics of choice and saw the need for regimented systems of combat. The methods and techniques of their day required ways to dismount riders off horse back and break or penetrate wooden armor. It is quite obvious that in today’s combat environment those techniques would be obsolete. Through out generations and over the centuries the ancient arts have been passed from master to student and master to student. The once effective and powerful combative training of the ancients has become an antiquity.

Today the ancient techniques of Samurai and  the fighting monks of China can be seen being practiced through training hall windows all over the world. The ancient forms and techniques that were once practical battle tactics have been manipulated by popular media and business ideology. Many practice the ancient martial arts for a plethora of reasons. Some of their reasons are for the very same reasons that the training was developed. People practice for fitness, protection and hobby. Others train simply to preserve the art. 

After World War II, the west was introduced to the Asian martial art craze. Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen were exposed to the Asian fighting arts of the Japanese and Philippines and wanted to learn. Many of the indigenous instructors or gurus realized the opportunity to make a buck from the naive westerners and began teaching watered down versions of the fighting arts. Often masters would draw out the training and add flashy, intricate and complicated techniques to the curriculum. It was the flash that would sell to the new western market. Soon even Hollywood would make movies with actors such as Bruce Lee and Chuck Norris demonstrating their athleticism and prowess on screen.

Belt ranking systems were added to help new students feel as if they were progressing and not quit. The once effective techniques for ancient combat were reduced to nothing more than acrobatics with some self protection value. Many of the hidden techniques which were the pride of warriors of old were lost through the simple process of supply and demand. Modern technology and weapons only aided in losing the practical fighting techniques and turning the martial arts into a lucrative but provocative industry. Today there are martial art companies that place their clients on programs known as “black belt plans.”

People are forced into contracts that they can not afford to breach for a certain amount of time until they receive their black belts. During the …

Schizophrenia Symptoms: Identify Them and Save Our Loved Ones

Schizophrenia is often mistaken as multiple personalities or split personality. As a matter of fact, it is a condition in which a person is split off from reality. This disorder is not rare; it is found in 1 out of 100 people. It is also not true that schizophrenia sufferers are dangerous. Despite their delusional thoughts and hallucinations, people with the disorder are not a threat to other people. The two symptoms above are the most common symptoms of this disorder. Delusional thoughts cause the person to believe in something that is not true. Often times, this person will express their ideas or belief to others and force them to believe. On the other hand, hallucinations happen when a person hear or see things which are not there. Other schizophrenia symptoms include disorganized speech and behavior that makes the sufferer talk in bizarre ways, starting a topic and ending it with a completely different topic, and responding to questions by giving totally unrelated answers. Another tell-tale sign is the lack of emotions.

If you notice that some of your loved ones seem to detach themselves from the world, it is a good sign that they are suffering from schizophrenia symptoms. People with this disorder always think and believe that others are watching them all the time and trying to hurt them. They are always suspicious with everything that is going on around them, and they think that the whole world is conspiring against them. Those people often experience severe depression, over sleeping, insomnia and inappropriate laughter or crying. They may also pay little or no attention to the way they look; men suffering from this condition usually don’t bother to shave or shower whilst women no longer put on makeup or take a good care of their appearance. Therefore, schizophrenics usually have messy hair and dark circles under their eyes due to lack of sleep.

Everything that is going on in these people’s lives scares them and thus they isolate themselves from the world. They will also neglect their regular activities and people who try to get close to them. This will lead to poor performance at work or in school. Co-workers and school mates may start to stay away from schizophrenia sufferers due to their strange and irrational behavior. However, it is not true that people suffering from this mental disorder cannot be helped. With the support and affection from family and friends, those suffering from the condition can be cured. They will be able to get their normal life back and live it to the fullest. Hence, the ability to identify schizophrenia symptoms is crucial in order to help those suffering from the condition.

Source by Diana Safrina

His Most Famous Painting (The Sleeping Gypsy) – Henri Rousseau

French ‘Post-Impressionist’ ‘Naive’ or ‘Primitive’ artist Henri Julien Félix Rousseau or Henri Rousseau was born to a plumber in Laval, in 1844. He showed great interest in music and drawing as a child and won many prizes in school too. Initially, he worked as a lawyer, enrolling later into the army during 1863-1867. Henri Rousseau moved to Paris in the year 1868 to look after and support his mother, as his father died untimely. He worked as a Government employee and rose to the post of a tax collector in the year 1871. Though, Henri Rousseau had a passion for painting, he took it up seriously only in his early forties. At the age of 49, he took up art as a profession and retired from his job. He was a self-taught genius painter, whose skillful, imaginative, and talented work still shines through his paintings, including “The Sleeping Gypsy,” and is lauded by the world, until date.

Rousseau was a great painter and his most famous paintings, including “The Sleeping Gypsy,” depict jungle scenes. Interestingly enough, the artist had never encountered anything ‘wild’ in his life. During army service, he had met soldiers and had heard stories about the subtropical countries and the animals there. This gave him enough food for his thoughts. Henri Rousseau paintings seemed flat and childish to many people who could not understand his talent, creating many critics, who ridiculed his work endlessly. Several established artists too did not like Henri’s unique style of work and considered it ‘untutored.’ Undeterred, the artist stuck to his naive and childish painting style, full of flat figures, free imagination, and ‘Realism.’ He started exhibiting his work and the number of his ardent followers, especially ‘the would be’ ‘Cubists,’ increased.

Rousseau’s most famous painting, “The Sleeping Gypsy (La Bohemienne endormie),” an oil on canvass work, created in 1897, fetched him a lot of international fame. In this Landscape Painting with ‘Impressionist’ touch, the painter portrayed a wandering woman (a Negress) music artist in deep sleep, in a moonlit bare desert, with a composed lion musing over her. It seems that the lions gaze is transfixed over the sleeping woman, dressed in Oriental costume. A mandolin player and a water jug, the only obvious possessions of the woman, are shown kept next to her.

The subject and the objects in “The Sleeping Gypsy” are sharply contoured with balanced rhythmic lines and curves. The lion’s man and the pattern on the gypsy’s dress have been done with meticulous precision. Crystalline hues grace the painting, imparting a perfect lighting effect. Measuring 51″ x 6′ 7″, “The Sleeping Gypsy” is an icon in the ‘Modern Art’ forms. This painting has inspired the field of music and poetry as well. Many artists created a replica of the painting, as tribute to Henri Rousseau, replacing the lion with some other animal.

Henri Rousseau exhibited “The Sleeping Gypsy” at the thirteenth ‘Salon des Indépendants’ and tried selling it to the mayor of Laval, but in vain. It finally got entry into the private collection of a Parisian merchant and was there until 1924. Simon Guggenheim bought it and gave it to the Museum of Modern Art, New York, United States, where it is presently displayed, in the year 1939. Henri Rousseau moved to a studio in Montparnasse in the year 1893 and worked there until 1910, the year of his death.

Source by Annette Labedzki

What You Need To Know About Intestinal Biopsies

Failure to obtain biopsies during endoscopy misses important treatable intestinal conditions

Thousands of people are undergoing endoscopic exams daily without having tissue samples obtained. Sadly, though their exams may visually appear normal, under the microscope there are often microscopic findings that explain the symptoms that will respond to directed therapy. The gut is lined with superficial cells that contain a few immune cells that release chemical mediators that attract other cells to the area and fight off foreign invaders.

Several cells only seen microscopically play a role in digestive symptoms

Lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells are the immune cells that are normally present in small numbers in the surface cells of the gastrointestinal tract. A few lymphocytes are present in the tips of the surface cells that are a type of epithelial cell. These lymphocytes act as the body’s scouts. They survey the barrier of the gut to the inside of the body, looking for signs of potential invading infectious agents. Once an attack is perceived, they signal reinforcements to join them on the front lines.

Lymphocytes are immune cells detected early in celiac disease and cause bowel symptoms

When persistent increased numbers of lymphocytes are present in the surface cells, a chronic inflammatory condition of the gut exists. In the duodenum, autoimmune reaction to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals is a common but frequently missed cause of chronic inflammation known more commonly as celiac disease or Sprue.

Eosinophils and mast cells are allergy cells that cause bowel inflammation often due to food

Eosinophils and mast cells are types of immune cells involved in allergy reactions in the body. They are less commonly present in the gastrointestinal lining except when there are parasites, food allergies, or chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders are less common and a newly recognized condition, mastocytic enterocolitis, is diagnosed when excess mast cells are present in the small bowel and colon. However, mast cells may be difficult to see on biopsies without a special stain for tryptase, an enzyme present in mast cells that are immunologically activated.

Allergic esophagus condition may mimic reflux but is due to food and eosinophils

The esophagus normally contains no eosinophils. The two exceptions gastroesophageal acid reflux in which small numbers, up to 6-7 usually and no more than 10-12 per high power field (40X magnification) are found in the lower esophagus only not in the mid or upper esophagus. Allergic eosinophilic esophagitis is diagnosed when 15 or more eosinophils per high power field are found in more than two fields or more than 20 to 24 per high power field in one field are seen or lesser numbers are present in the upper esophagus. Mast cells that are activated have also been found associated with allergic eosinophilic esophagitis and their presence supports allergic esophagitis over reflux as the cause of the increase eosinophils though it is believed some people have both conditions coexisting.

Allergy and immune cells in the stomach and intestines found microscopically cause symptoms

In the stomach and small intestine more than 10 eosinophils per high power field defines eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In the small intestine and colon more than 20 mast cells per high power field found in association with otherwise unexplained diarrhea is now termed mastocytic enterocolitis. This newly recognized and described entity is previously unrecognized cause of diarrhea in some patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome who may have been told they have a normal colon exam though no biopsies were done. Similarly, more than 20 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells in the colon are found in lymphocytic colitis, another form of microscopic inflammation of the intestine resulting in diarrhea that may be inappropriately diagnosed as IBS.

Gluten grains wheat, barley and rye cause increased lymphocytes with normal blood tests

In many of these patients, gluten sensitivity is to blame and the lymphocytic colitis is felt to represent a colonic form of celiac disease. In celiac disease, 30 or more lymphocytes in the tips of the villi per 100 epithelial cells is the earliest sign of gluten injury occurring before the villi become flattened or blunted. This finding may noted before the specific blood tests, anti-endomysial (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies appear in the blood even though the intestine is damaged enough to result in nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea. Anti-gliadin antibodies are often present however when significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis is present along with symptoms that respond to gluten free diet. Lesser degrees of intra-epithelial lymphocytosis have been proposed as highly suggestive of early celiac disease and or gluten sensitivity, in the range of 20-25 per 100 epithelial cells.

Colon can be affected early with microscopic signs only

In the colon, the presence of eosinophils is considered one of the earliest findings of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. …

Twentieth-Century Jewelry Styles

Twentieth-century jewelry styles show a fascinating evolution. We know these styles as Art Nouveau, Edwardian (or Garland), Art Deco, and Retro. Each was popular during a specific period and each has its unique style.

During the first decades of the twentieth century, the jewelry industry experienced a rebirth. This was due, in part, to the discovery of new supplies of gems and development of new manufacturing and gem-cutting techniques.

Social roles changed too, Jewelry prices were within reach of the ordinary citizen. The changing role in women in society and the rise of the middle class put new demands on the jewelry industry. In response, the industry experienced a revolution in jewelry style and design.

The first half of the twentieth century saw several distinct jewelry styles. Some were associated with are movements, others were a reaction to wartime shortages. All leave a brilliant legacy in the treasures that connoisseurs prize today.

Art Nouveau Jewelry

Introduced in the 1890s, the flowing style of Art Nouveau was a departure from the historic revival styles that had dominated nineteenth -century decorative arts. Art Nouveau, French for “new art,” was inspired by the vitality of the natural world and a new appreciation for Japanese art

Jewels in Art Nouveau style combine realistic interpretations of plants and animals with creatures of fantasy and myth. Raised to the level of fine art by such designers as Rene Lalique, this sinuous and sensual style disappeared completely with the onset of World War I in 1914.

Art Nouveau jewelry often includes one or more of these features:

  • Curving lines
  • Realistic portrayals of nature including butterflies, birds, and intertwining foliage
  • Fantastic creatures such as dragons and other mythical beasts
  • Gems such as pearls, opal, moonstone, aquamarine, tourmaline, rose quartz, chalcedony, chrysoprase, and amethyst
  • Use of glass, either molded or as enamel
  • Designs of women transformed into mermaids, winged sprites, or flowers

Edwardian Jewelry

Between 1900 and 1915, during the reign of England’s King Edward VII, the upper class of Europe and the US wore jewelry as a way to demonstrate their wealth. They favored lavish jewelry inspired by the eighteenth-century French court. Their jewels were made of the finest, rarest, and most costly gems and precious metals. This jewelry style is known as Edwardian, but it’s sometimes called Garland because it typically featured garlands of flowers tied with ribbons and bows.

Edwardian or Garland style jewelry can include these features:

  • Pearls and diamonds
  • Delicate platinum mountings
  • Colored gemstones including ruby, sapphire, emerald, opal, and cat’-eye chrysoberyl
  • Motifs like garlands, ribbons, bows, crescents, starbursts, Greek keys, laurel wreaths, wings, feathers, crowns, oak leaves, swallows, and butterflies.

Art Deco Jewelry

The Art Deco style emerged after World War I and dominated the decorative arts and jewelry from 1920 through the 1930s. It was a strong reaction against the ethereal sensuality of Art Nouveau and the delicate elegance of the Garland style. Art Deco jewelry suggests post-war practicality through its strong geometric patterns in bold contrasting colors.

Art Deco features include:

  • Bold, contrasting colors
  • Strong, geometric patterns
  • Sleek, streamlined look, emphasizing the vertical line
  • Gemstones including diamonds, black onyx, lapis lazuli, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, jade, turquoise, and topaz
  • Carved or cabochon-cut colored gemstones
  • Primary colors in rich combinations and strong contrast

Retro Jewelry

The outbreak of World War II in 1939 ended the Art Deco period. Gems were in short supply during the early 1940s, and platinum was reserved for military use. The jewelry produced during and immediately after the war used materials, such as gold and diamonds, that were still available during the lean years. Jewelry from the period is known as Retro.

The Retro style rounded Art Deco’s sharp angles and muted its bold colors. It features sculpted curves sparingly set with small diamonds and rubies. Jewelry of the late 1940s reflects post-war prosperity in a more opulent use of colored stones and increased femininity of design motifs.

Common themes and styles in Retro jewelry include:

  • Floral and bow motifs in colored gems
  • Animal figures of enameled gold and gems
  • Jeweled brooches, lapel clips
  • Bold, sculpted curves of rose gold set with small diamonds and rubies
  • Designs inspired by mechanical objects such as bicycle chains, padlocks, and tank treads
  • Stylized natural motifs
  • Large motifs fabricated using thin gold sheets of conserve metal while giving a substantial look
  • Gemstones like small diamonds, rubies (often synthetic), and light-colored sapphires.

This article brought to you by Coppari Jewelry [http://www.copparijewelry.com]

Source by Kevin Jardim

Secrets to Getting Very Discounted Theater Tickets in New York City

There are SO many hidden ways to obtain cheap, discounted and even free tickets to Broadway, off-Broadway and off-off Broadway in New York City…some as low as $4.00! I’ve lived in New York for all my life and can share these secrets first hand! Here are my picks for just some of the ways to score discount Broadway theater tickets. Why pay more?

Automobile Club of America

Show your card and receive discount Broadway theater tickets to Murdered by the Mob, any show at the New Victory Theater (fantastic children’s shows), The Lion King (my fav), Mary Poppins, Radio City Christmas Spectacular, and several others.

Broadway Box

This is an excellent resource for obtaining discount codes for discount Broadway theater tickets and off-Broadway show tickets.


The store that invented the 100 pack of toilet paper, also brings you discounts of up to 50% off of concerts, theater, and sporting events. If you are a member, log on with the link above, and click on Services, followed by Event Tickets. Who knew? Discount Broadway theater tickets at Costco!

Entertainment Book

Use tickets from the Entertainment book, to get one ticket absolutely free, when you purchase tickets to any show at the Abingdon Theatre, the Women’s Project, or the American Theatre of Actors.


A free membership gives you access to a host of discount Broadway theater tickets….and other fantastic outings! Amazing site!

Hospital Audiences

Provides very low-cost and discount Broadway show tickets for those that require physical accessibility, people with all disabilities, and the ‘On the Go’ senior guide provides information on senior discounts. You’ll also find helpful information including locations of passenger loading zones, theaters that offer wheelchair seating, accessible toilets, transportation for people with disabilities in specially- designed Omni buses, and more.

High 5 Tix

Teens can get $5 tickets to a whole slew of theaters, museums, and concerts. One adult or friend can accompany each teen for the same $5! Given that it costs $20 to simply walk into the Museum of Modern Art (can you believe it?!), this is a real find! Also, Blue Man Tubes is featured for 1 cent several times a year! (No it’s not a typo!) Check their site often as popular shows and events sell out very quickly. This is a great source for students looking for discount Broadway theater tickets plus!

Hip Tix

Young professionals, ages 18 – 35, can obtain $20 advance tickets to any shows at the Roundabout Theater Company. Membership, which is free, also includes invitations to post-show parties with Broadway stars!

Hit Show Club

Discount Broadway theater tickets (and off Broadway too!), some with restaurants also!

Kids’ Night Out on Broadway

Young people, ages 6-18, can see a participating Broadway show for FREE when accompanied by a full-paying adult!! Kids’ Night on Broadway is now year-round and takes place on selected Tuesdays and Wednesdays throughout the year. Also, participating restaurants will offer a free entrée for each child accompanied by an adult who purchases a regularly-priced entrée. This is a fantastic opportunity to expose your children to Broadway. Your kids will also benefit by seeing so many other kids enjoying the arts!

Lunch Tix

Receive a daily e-mail reflecting deep “theatre doorbuster” discounts. Offers available at 8am through 3pm that day (at the end of lunch).

New York Show Tickets

A ticket clearinghouse that offers 45% discounts, buy-one, get- one-free deals, and rush tickets.

School Theater Ticket Program

You can access their website to order discount broadway show tickets. Or, you pick up their coupons in libraries and schools and bring to theater box offices or call the box office to obtain your tickets. You’ll find discounts to most of the top run Broadway and off-Broadway shows.


Get half price tickets to theater, music, sports, comedy, family and other events. Just register your e-mail and you’ll receive notices of available events including many discount broadway theater tickets.


You’ll find discount Broadway show tickets and off Broadway show tickets for a large variety of productions. Super choices!


Pay $99 per year and receive access to a daily roster of complimentary shows, sporting events, comedy clubs, concerts, lectures, dance recitals and more. Pay $4.00 service charge per ticket. The annual fee pays for itself with the first use. This is my favorite club. Last year we attended many basketball games, the circus, a comedy club, a cabaret performance, and several Broadway and off-Broadway shows. Even if you are visiting for one week, it pays to join. Check daily and continually; but usually after 1:00 pm. If you find what you want, buy it immediately because events can sell out within minutes. You will have a wider selection of off-Broadway theater for most of the time, but items pop up all the time!


A …

The Advantages Of Utilizing Mixed Media

Mixed media art allows both novice and professional artists have some fun with their craft because there are really no rules. It entails using just about anything you wish in creating a finished piece, like paint, sand, salt, charcoal and other things found at home. You can be messy for the sake of your art. Mixed media, in visual art, refers to an artwork in the making of which more than one medium has been used.

Landscapes plus seascapes made good subjects for mixed media projects because the texture and 3-D aspect that numerous media put to your project could bring the landscape to life. You can find a landscape photo in a magazine and cut it out, or find one on the web and print it. It should be colourful and also contain 3-D things like trees, flowers as well as buildings. Attach the picture on watercolour paper and make use of watercolour paints or pencils as well as items such as fabric and bark to continue the image outward. Get colours onto the original image for more blending. Another technique for younger artists is always to cut landscape elements like trees, water as well as animals from construction paper and paste them on a larger paper, and then add details using watercolours or oil paints.

Handmade greeting cards lend themselves well to a mixed media technique since you can adapt the media to the theme of the greeting card. Start with a simple collage technique by cutting or ripping construction paper and gluing the pieces to cardstock. For instance, you could use red and green paper for Christmas, and orange and black for Halloween. Form overlapping layers to get a more tactile effect. Create textures according to the event. For example, put tiny bits of pine boughs for Christmas or twisted tissue to depict ghosts for Halloween. If the receiver is a sports fan, create a background of his team’s hues and create a collage of cut-up sports cards of his favourite players. This process also can be useful for party invites.

Mixed media refers to completely anything that can be put onto a board, canvas or any other support and which can be combined with paints or other media. Why would you use mixed media? To begin with, it is one of the best methods to get into and to teach you the world of art. However, using it is not, as many may assume, a simple way of doing art. Any individual can paste a number of elements together, yet often the outcomes will look ugly.

There are lots of advantages to utilizing mixed media. First of all, it’s inexpensive. Newspapers, cloth, and household glue can form the base of a mixed media project. Secondly, and most importantly, using various materials from the world around you sensitizes you to things that you wouldn’t ordinarily see. Who would have thought that a piece of the local newspaper, a piece of wood, and a few paint had the ability to produce a pleasing artwork? This is also an excellent way of training in the world of form, shape and also colour. By combining different shapes and colours from the world around you, you can very quickly train the eye.

Source by Jake S Williams

Learn Guitar Quick – Choosing Guitar Strings


No doubt about it strings are important. They determine not only the sound of your instrument, but also the feel and playability of your guitar. Beginning guitarists may not put much thought into string selection, but the wrong choice can seriously degrade the sound of your guitar and make your instrument much more difficult to play.


Metal Strings

Note: In this section, “metal” refers to the material and not “metal”-as in “heavy metal”-the musical genre. Electric guitar strings are always metal and tend to be lighter (thinner) than acoustic guitar strings. For instance, string gauges (in inches) for a typical set of regular light gauge electric guitar strings would be as follows:

1st string – E: .010 inches (.25 mm)


2nd string – B: .013 inches (.33 mm)

3rd string – G: .017 inches (.43 mm)


4th string – D: .026 inches (.66 mm)


5th string – A: .036 inches (.91 mm)

6th string – E: .046 inches (1.17 mm)

Contrast these with a typical set of medium phosphor bronze acoustic guitar strings:

1st string – E: .013 inches (.33 mm)

2d string – B: .017 inches (.43 mm)

3rd string – G: .026 inches (.66 mm)

4th string – D: .035 inches (.89 mm)

5th string – A: .045 inches (1.14 mm)

6th string – E: .056 inches (1.42 mm)


As you can see, going from an electric to an acoustic is almost like moving up a string-that is, the first string on the acoustic is equivalent to the second string on the electric guitar. The second acoustic is like the third electric string-and so on.

Note that this is just a general trend. You can select heavier strings for an electric guitar. (You will sacrifice playability for a richer sounding tone). For instance, you can buy electric guitar strings that go from .013 inches for the high E to .056 inches for the low E string.

And you can also buy lighter gauge strings for an acoustic guitar and sacrifice volume and tone for playability. For instance, you can buy extra light acoustic strings that range from .010 to .047 inch-or even extra lights (.009 to .045).

But, in general, acoustic guitar strings tend to be heavier than electric guitar strings because they must generate a greater sound pressure level without the benefit of amplification. Thicker strings tend to ring more and have higher volume than thinner strings.

Electric guitar strings are made thinner so as to make them easier to play. Lighter strings make it easier to play the very fast solos and improvisations normally seen in rock, metal, jazz and other electric guitar genres. The strings can be lighter to facilitate fast playing because the string sound does not have to be as strong due to the fact that it will be amplified before being heard.

Nylon Strings

Classical guitars are strung exclusively with nylon strings. These strings produce a mellower, much less harsh sound than metal strings. Nylon stings are under much less tension than steel strings when tuned to concert pitch. Thus they are much easier to play and also gentler on the finger tips.

Metal strings should never be used on a classical guitar. The neck is not sufficiently reinforced to be able to support the high string tensions caused by metal strings and will most certainly break.


Guitar string selection is important not only to tonal and sound quality; it also affects playability of the instrument. Guitar strings come in three general categories. Electric guitar strings are made of metal and are generally lighter gauge than acoustic steel strings. Acoustic folk or western guitars use strings that are metal. They are generally heavier in gauge than electric guitar strings. This makes them harder to play but also makes them louder. Classical guitars are always strung with nylon strings which gives them their characteristic mellow sound.

Source by Robert M. Matthews

Royal Carlock Washington DC Hand Colored Photography

Royal Hubert Carlock (1899-1970) was born in Paris Crossing, Indiana. One of six children he was born to Benjamin and Ellen Carlock. After graduating from Indiana University, Carlock married Ethel Wohrer in 1917. He entered the U.S. Army near the end of World War I where he specialized in aerial photography as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and after the War had ended, the couple moved to Washington DC in 1918 where their first daughter was born.

After his discharge from the Army, Carlock secured employment with a photography firm named C.O Buckingham who at the time was producing hand-painted photographs of the chief tourist attractions in Washington, DC. This explains the obvious similarity in style between Carlock and Buckingham hand-colored pictures.

Ethel Carlock died in 1920 during an influenza epidemic, leaving Carlock a widower with a 15 month-old baby.

Carlock was fascinated by the architecture and national treasures found in our nation’s capital. He focused his photographic and hand-coloring skills on subjects found in-and-around the Washington DC area. The only photographer in his company, his black & white photographs were hand-painted in oils and sold to the multitude of tourists visiting our nation’s capital during the post World War I era.

In 1922 Carlock married his 2nd wife, Emma Clarke. In that same year he also left the employment of the Buckingham Studios and opened his own photography studio at 406 13th Street NW in Washington, DC. Carlock’s “Snappy Snap Shop” specialized in quick development of tourist’s film along with the sale of his increasingly famous hand-colored photographs of the Washington DC landmarks and monuments, including the White House, Jefferson Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, and Washington Monuments, the U.S. Capital Building, and of course, Washington’s colorful cherry blossoms. Working together as a team, Carlock took the pictures and Emma, along with other colorists, hand-tinted them.

We have seen Carlock pictures identified in three distinct manners:

• Matted pictures signed “Carlock” on the lower right corner beneath the picture, with or without a title lower left.

• Un-matted, close-framed pictures with “Carlock” being embossed on the lower-left corner of the actual picture.

• No marking on the picture or matting, but simply a “Carlock” picture label on the backing.

Jane Crandall has reported that Royal Carlock was her uncle and that both of her parents worked for him at some point. She also reported that her mother, Julia Carlock, was one of Carlock’s colorists and would bring pictures home to color in the evening. Jane Crandall also reported that many of the signatures found on Carlock pictures were actually signed by her mother.

Royal Carlock kept his business running into the 1940’s. Collector Myke Ellis has reported that the 1943 Polk Washington D.C. Address Directory listed Royal Carlock as working at 913 Pennsylvania Avenue. Even during the Depression years when so many other photographers saw their businesses either decline or closed their doors, Carlock’s business flourished due primarily to the constant high level of tourism, and the large and growing number of people who were gainfully employed by the U.S. Government.

Although his photographs usually sold best at cherry blossom time, for several years Carlock also produced a Christmas Card which contained a hand-colored photo of Washington DC. These are considered quite rare with collectors today.

As with all other early 20th c. hand-colored photographers, the advent of color film led to the decline in Carlock’s hand-colored photography business. The primary emphasis of his business turned to photo refinishing until 1957 when he retired from the photography business to devote his life to conservation.

In 1962 his 40-year marriage to Emma dissolved and in 1964 he married Grace Diane Knapp.

Suffering from cardiac problems during the final years of his life, Royal Carlock died from a heart attack in 1970. His ashes were buried on a small isle in a lagoon at the National Isaac Walton League Conservation Park near Gaithersburg, MD.

Carlock pictures are still relatively inexpensive and quite affordable. Their low price, good quality, and interesting subject matter will probably continue to make them collectible. The only limitation is that there are only approximately 10 different Washington DC scenes to collect. The next time you see a Washington DC picture in a shop or show, take a closer look at it. It will probably be a Royal Carlock hand-colored photograph.

Source by Michael Ivankovich

Music Agents in the Live Music Business – What Music Agents Do and How You Can Get One For Your Band

Finding and organizing shows for your band can be a time consuming and frustrating experience. You have to play live and you need to reach as many existing and new fans as possible. Yet, with all the indications that the live music business will continue to grow (worldwide concert ticket sales were $ 4.4bn in 2009, up 17% from 2008), actually getting those gigs can be difficult. Once you are offered a show by a promoter you still need to agree a payment and sort out a contract.

A music agent is a live music business professional who will find you paid gigs and other live engagements. These gigs are known as bookings, since the term booking agent. (It is generally accepted that a talent agent is any agent who can find work for their client – film, TV, book writing for instance. , & Berry, 2007.] This article will deal with booking agents.)

The booking agent does not actually put on shows. An agent acts as an intermediate between the thousands of artists and the limited worldwide body of promoters of concert venues, festival, clubs and colleges. [Hopewell & Hanlon, 2003]

The work of the booking agent An individual music agent usually woks as part of larger agencies consisting of a number of agents. The agents are responsible for their own revenues and use the agency's infrastructure (including telephone, ISP, legal and accountancy services) to help run their own "micro-business" within the overall framework of the agency. The agency then takes a cut of the agent's revenue to pay for these services and to (hopefully) generate a profit. The most well known agencies are Creative Arts Agency (CAA), William Morris Agency (WMA), Artists Group International, Monetary Peninsula Artists, The Agency Group, Solo, X-Ray Touring and International Talent Booking (ITB).

A music agent makes money by taking a percentage of the artist's gross income for a performance. If you play a show for $ 1000 then the agent will take $ 100 of that as their percentage. You should not pay your agent money commissions on anything other than what you earn from gigs and tours.

Music agents are regulated in the US by the major entertainment unions, AFM, AFTRA, SAG & Equity who have capped the agent's percentage to 10% of the artist's gross fee for each show. (AFM in fact allows up to 20% for one-off appearances.) In the UK there is no such regulation but 10% of the gross fee seems to be the norm.

Additionally, if an agent makes a deal with a promoter that sees the promoter providing non-cash additions, such as hotels or executive transport, then the agent will often calculate the cash equivalent of these "special terms and conditions" and charge a percentage of the perceived value of these items when calculating the commission due. After all, the agent did negotiate very strenuously on behalf of the artist to secure these non-cash perks; it is therefore only fair that the agent should be compensated further. It is because very important that the artist manager has access to a highly experienced accountant who can verify the true cash worth of these intangibles. What percentage of the Sony PlayStation included backstage should your booking agent charge for?

The booking process It is the agent's job to negotiate deals with the promoters based on what he or she knows of the act's status, the city or venue he or she is pitching to, and the relationship with the promoter.

The agent will work with the artist's management to identify and plot periods of touring or one-off shows. These shows were traditionally in support of a new release by the artist, such as a new album, and were treated as part of the promotional campaign for that new CD, along with radio & TV appearances, magazine and newspaper interviews and in-store signings . Bands now see live shows and touring as a primary source of income as their recorded music revenues have decreased and so tour to make money and not purely as a promotional activity. A good agent therefore will be aware of what opportunities exist for their clients.

Once a period of gigging activity is agreed with the artist and their management the agent will approach promoters to arrange the actual shows. In some cases this initial approach will be fairly straight forward, depending on the 'clout' of the agent. 'Superstar' agents such as Marty Diamond (the US agent for Coldplay, Snow Patrol, KT Tunstall, and Artic Monkeys) would obviously be more able to persuade a promoter to take on a small, unknown act. The understanding would be that if the promoter works with this act now, then the agent will offer the promoter the chance to book a bigger act in the future.

When …

The Evolution of Greek Sculpture From 600 BCE – 150 BCE

Greek sculpture “evolved” throughout, and paralleled the historical significances of this ancient civilization through three major historical periods. We see how for the Greeks, art and the events of the day were significantly entwined.

Each of the three main periods of Greek sculpture presented its own unique contributions in the art of sculpting the human form. Ancient Greeks were skilled craftsmen and incorporated the human appearance into every aspect of their art from the earliest period the Archaic, through the middle Classical period, into the Hellenistic period. Although today we view sculpting as an art form, in early ancient times the Greeks viewed it as a learned trade or skill.

Due to the Greek’s unique appreciation for sculpture, this art form was nurtured by the city of Athens, then the sculptural hub of Greece, as it grew through various periods. This ‘financial support’ is why the Ancient Greeks created vast amounts of sculpture. Art was not so prolific in areas of the world where it wasn’t profitable. During the Archaic period, from 650 B.C. to 480 B.C., dictators ruled the most powerful Greek cities. Despite tyrannical rule and political and social unrest, the arts flourished. The Greek’s victory at Persia’s attempt to conquer them in Asia Minor, ushered in a celebration in Greek Art, “symbolizing the triumph of civilized peoples over the forces of barbarism”. “The origins of democracy can be traced to Athens in the years following the fall of the tyrannical Peisistratids (560-510 BC)”.

The earliest full size stone Greek sculptures were one dimensional nude males and females (kouroi and draped korai). As beautiful as every sculpture was, they were being created as grave markers, cult images, and as dedications for sanctuaries rather than works of art. Obvious differences in the male and female sculptures of this period are that males stand nude, forward facing, one leg forward and arms to the side with clenched fists, where the females stand with feet together, always fully clothed with nothing more than their feet and arms bare. “The difference between the sexes is striking”. Many human sculptures displayed ‘the Archaic smile’, which was not created to display emotion, but rather as a simple, easy solution for the artist creating the “face”. Heavy Egyptian influence is evidenced by the similarities found in many sculptures during this period. Some art historians believe Egyptian artists used a grid system, with spacing between each line to define their proportions. “Using this same grid system, artists of the Greek Archaic period produced the simple and limiting style that led to the creation of the rigid sculptural forms of that period.” Although bronze casting to create sculptures was discovered in the middle of this period, it wasn’t commonly used until the 5th century. It’s important to note that each stone sculpture of the Archaic period was richly painted, enhancing features such as the lips and eyes. Today most consider them quite beautiful works of art.

Marked by the end of the Persian wars, the second period in Greek art, the Classical period, spanned from 480 B.C. to 323 B.C. and brought about great changes in Greek sculpting. This period saw the full development of the Greek democratic system of government, however by the late 5th century wars raged between Athens and Sparta, and the Carthaginians and the Greeks of Sicily and Italy. Again in the 4th century, Athens, Sparta and Thebes were warring over control of Greece. Under Spartan rule, Greece divided and the Macedonian state rose under Phillip II and his son, Alexander the Great. The wars occurring during this period influenced the more life-like, realistic anatomical appearances taken on by sculptures. Statues with slender athletic torsos were often posed with war-like stances or grimaced faces. “Characteristic examples of this trend are two slightly later works by Praxiteles, the Hermes and the Conidian Aphrodite. They were considered of unparalleled beauty by the ancient authors and were copied repeatedly in later periods.”

This classical style is also reflected in two of the earliest bronze sculptures Tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogiton. “Early Classical statues tend to be dramatic, and to carry with them the impression that they represent one distinct stage in a series of events”. “In the period from 430 – 400 B.C. sculptors in particular devoted a great part of their attention to exploiting the decorative potentialities of the ‘wind-blown’ style of rendering drapery which had been developed by the sculptors of the Parthenon pediments”. By the 4th century, nude female sculptures began to emerge. The Greek female nude sculpture of Aphrodite, the embodiment of perfect beauty, set the standard for other nude female sculptures. Later we see “Athena, the daughter of Zeus, patroness of the arts, promoter of wisdom, goddess of war, and guardian of cities, always clothed and sometimes even armed.” The two most …