Marketing Art on Demographics, Psychographics, and Behavior

Many would argue that starting a business in these tough economic times is not prudent at least, especially a business characterized by a low inventory turnover and a very high elasticity of demand. In the short run, one would not expect a high return on investment from such a business, but with a well defined long-term strategy in place starting any business now is not such a bad idea. First, many companies that have been in existence for at least five years are on the brink of bankruptcy. Their fixed assets overshoot their current decreased demand and their debt-to-equity ratios are high. It means less competition. Second, when the economy starts picking up, your start-up will be well-positioned to go up with the tidal wave carrying little or no debt and built “tough, lean and mean.”

Art might be not such an easy sell now, but it is not necessarily the case in a better economic environment. Let us examine the consumer spending patterns on art in Canada.

o Canadian consumers spent $22.8 billion on cultural goods and services in 2003, an amount that is greater than spending on tobacco, alcohol and games of chance combined.

o The $22.8 billion in consumer spending is over three times more than government spending on culture in Canada.

o Culture is a growth market: Consumer spending on cultural goods and services grew by 36% between 1997 and 2003, much higher than inflation (14%) and population growth (6%).

o Canadians spent $1.2 billion on books (excluding school books) in 2003, 34% more than in 1997 (not adjusted for inflation).

o Spending on live performing arts was $980 million on in 2003, a 31% increase from 1997.

o Canadians spent $530 million on works of art, carvings and vases in 2003, 48% more than in 1997.

o Consumer spending on admissions to museums and heritage sites totaled $410 million in 2003, 23% more than in 1997.

o In comparison, consumer spending on live sporting events was $530 million in 2003.

o 49% of Canadian households spent some money on books (excluding school books) in 2003.

o 37% of households spent money on live performing arts.

o 11% of households spent money on works of art, carvings and vases.

People do spend on art. People are likely to rely on local artists if they have a choice and the total cost is affordable. Culture and art are growing in Canada. The trend is likely to go up despite the present economic slowdown.

Winnipeg Demographics

I cannot emphasize more that demographics is the key variable in any marketing effort. It is not a coincidence that many companies spend fortunes on conducting primary demographic research prior to developing a new business segment or entering a new market. Art is especially sensitive to demographic segmentation. Thus knowing your customer is key to your success. Let us examine Winnipeg demographics to substantiate the points above.

1. According to the 2006 Census, there were 633,451 people residing in Winnipeg itself and a total of 694,668 inhabitants in the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area on 16 May 2006, and 711,455 in the Winnipeg Capital Region making it Manitoba’s largest city and the eighth largest CMA in Canada.

2. Of the city population, 48.3% were male and 51.7% were female. 24.3% were 19 years old or younger, people aged by 20 and 39 years accounted for 27.4%, and those between 40 and 64 made up 34.0% of the population.

3. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7, compared to an average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.

4. Between the censuses of 2001 and 2006, Winnipeg’s population increased by 2.2%, compared to the average of 2.6% for Manitoba and 5.4% for Canada. The population density of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,365.2 people per square kilometer, compared with an average of 3.5 for Manitoba.

5. The population of the City of Winnipeg is estimated at 672,300 as of July 1, 2009 and that of the census metropolitan area at 739,300.

Understanding Psychographics

Psychographics or lifestyle analysis is essentially the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living. Psychographics are generally expressed as Activities, Interests, and Opinions. A detailed lifestyle analysis is likely to help new businesses in a number of ways. First, the analysis will help in planning an effective marketing strategy. Second, understanding lifestyle patterns will help in developing good advertising themes and web content. Third, lifestyle analysis helps designers to further improve interior and exterior designs.

There is a need to critically understand the spending patterns of people, especially on art and culture, how can they be facilitated by an improved online shopping experience which not only connects them to local artists but also provides many useful services as well.

Behaviors

To effectively tap the target market …

The Disadvantages of the Weight Watchers Program

For those are looking to lose weight effectively, the Weight Watchers Program might prove to be the solution that you are looking for. There are plenty of advantages to look forward to when we speak of the Weight Watchers Program, nevertheless this program does come with its own limitations and disadvantages. Let us look at some the drawbacks of the Weight Watcher Program:

1. It may prove to be expensive for some. This program has its registration or signing on fee, as well as a weekly fee that you have to pay every time you attend a meeting. Although you can cancel your membership at any time, this is quite unlikely as this program is quite effective, and you would not want to leave a plan that works. Thus once you sign up, you would definitely be able to lose weight, but the cost may be prohibitive for some. Make sure you can afford the program before you sign up.

2. It works based on a group-atmosphere, which does not suit everyone. Many of us out there prefer working individually and would not feel too comfortable in a group-situation, thus ensure that you can work in this type of an atmosphere before you sign up.

3. Weekly progress checks might prove to be discouraging to some. As weekly weigh-ins is needed, this may prove to be a hassle for those who cannot commit to the weekly meetings. And if you do not reach your intended target every week, you might lose motivation and feel discouraged with your failure to lose the amount of weight that you want to. Most people prefer programs that monitor weight on a monthly basis so that they can see a significant difference compared to the last weigh-in, thus weekly weigh-ins may prove to be a discouragement for some.

4. There is no set diet or nutritional plan on the Weight Watchers Program. IF you signed up hoping that this program would provide you with a complete and structured diet of what to eat and when to eat them, you have been mistaken. This program does not provide you with diet plans, it allows you to choose whatever you feel like eating, only that they make you record what you eat. This feature of being able to choose to eat whatever that you want could prove deadly for some, as you might be tempted to finish all your Points on not-so-healthy food, and this could prove to be unhealthy for you.

Concluding, the Weight Watchers Program does come with its own set of limitations, thus make sure that you understand how this program works completely before you sign up for it.

Click Here to take a quiz to identify your metabolic type.



Source by Ron T Cody

Mad Dogs by Vettriano

Mad Dogs by Jack Vettriano is a famous oil painting by this Scottish painter who has risen in recent years to become one of the most popular contemporary artists within Europe and has a large fan base right across this continent plus North America. This article discusses the Mad Dogs painting and puts it into context within the career of Jack Vettriano up to now.

Mad Dogs follows a similar style to Vettriano’s best known painting of the Singing Butler which has itself become one of the most frequent reproduction art prints of any in the world currently. Both these paintings feature classically dressed characters relaxing on a beach, some holding umbrellas which is another symbol that Vettriano has become well remembered for.

Besides Mad Dogs, Vettriano used produced other classic prints and paintings such as The Singing Butler, And So to Bed, Bad Boy, Her Secret Life, Just Another Day, Blades, In Thoughts of You, The Temptress, On Parade, Beautiful Dreamer, Queen of Diamonds II, Dance Me to the End of Love and The Missing Man II.

For those who appreciate reproductions for their own homes of Vettriano’s classic paintings, this Dogs would perfectly suit a framed art print or poster because of his own particular style. Some Vettriano prints are also available as limited editions and they themselves could make good investments for the future.

In conclusion, Mad Dogs will remain one of the most charming and popular paintings from the career of Jack Vettriano for many years to come even as more great works are added to his back catalogue over the coming years when many expect the Scottish painter to go from strength to strength and build an even more impressive and respected reputation within the art world.



Source by Tom Gurney

Vision India – 2025 (Expectations of an Ordinary Person)

Introduction

The way one lyrist has written, “Hum logo ko samajh sako to samjho dilbar jaani; jitna bhi tum samjhoge utni hogi hayerani”…in a nut-shell we Indian’s are most “unpredictable”. When the expectations are low…we have performed really well and contrary to that when expectations were very high…most of the time we have failed to live up to those expectations.

As we are going to complete 58 yrs of independence on 15th August 2005, it is a pleasure to share with you the facts about India, Vision India 2025 (From Ordinary person’s point of View), and India in 21st Century.

From Independence…till now

India was a British colony. It earned its independence from the British on 15th August 1947. Day before that Pakistan which was created as a result of partition of British India was established and flanked on two sides of India: West Pakistan which is called today Pakistan, and east Pakistan, now an independent state called Bangladesh. After its independence, the political leaders of India adopted the liberal democratic system for the country.

Since its independence, India has transformed a lot. When India attained independence in 1947, its population was around 400 million people. Now there are billion people in India. India is the largest democracy in the world. It has the biggest number of people with franchise rights and the largest number of Political Parties, which take part in election campaign.

Before its independence, India was never a single country but a bunch of different entities. Many predicted that India, because of diversities in its cultures, religion, languages, castes, manners, local histories, nationalities and identities, would not survive as a single democratic country, but would break up into smaller countries.

Since independence, India had many political problems. During independence the most burning issues were the riots between the Hindus and Muslims while the Sikhs were siding with Hindus. Another issue was convincing the Princely states not to declare independence or join Pakistan but to join the Indian Union. India also had a few wars with its neighbors on border issues.

India also has many internal problems. Different communities with different identities – regional, language, caste, religion – demanded different rights for their communities. Some communities demanded more autonomy for their cultures within the Indian states. Others demanded autonomous states within the Indian Union, while the others demanded to be independent from India.

With all its problems India survives as a single state with democratic character.

How much do you know about India? (India – Fact File)

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan

Population: 1,080,264,388 (July 2005 est.)

Population Growth Rate: 1.4% (2005 est.)

Life expectancy: 64.35 years

Sex ratio: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Composition of Religion: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)

Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language

Administrative Break-up: 28 states and 7 union territories

Executive Heads: President A.P.J. Abdul KALAM (since 26 July 2002); Vice President Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT (since 19 August 2002)

Head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since May 2004)

Economic Overview: India’s diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Services are the major source of economic growth, though two-thirds of the workforce is in agriculture. The UPA government has committed to furthering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced in some areas, but high tariffs (averaging 20% in 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still in place. The government has indicated it will do more to liberalize investment in civil aviation, telecom, and insurance sectors in the near term. Privatization of government-owned industries has proceeded slowly, and continues to generate political debate; continued social, political, and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6.8% since 1994, reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers. Despite strong growth, the World Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit, running at approximately 9% of GDP. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social, economic, and environmental problem. …

His Most Famous Painting (The Bonaventure Pine in St Tropez) – Paul Signac

French ‘Neo-Impressionist’ painter Paul Signac or Paul Victor Jules Signac (11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was born into a bourgeois family in Paris. Paul aimed architecture as his career, until he dropped the idea at the age of eighteen to start a career in painting. He voyaged near the coasts of Europe, painting the scenery he came across. Later on, Paul also painted the landscapes of cities in France. The turning point of Signac’s painting career was in 1884, when he met Georges Seurat and Claude Monet. The disciplined working techniques of Seurat and his ideas of colors impressed Signac. Inspired by Seurat, Paul abandoned the tiny brushstrokes of ‘Impressionism’ to trail with technically juxtaposed minute dots of pure colors, planned to mixed and blend not only on the canvas, but also in the spectator’s eye, the defining trait of ‘Pointillism.’ Paul’s most famous painting “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez (Le pin de Bonaventura a Saint-Tropez)” is a stunner. His other famous works include ‘Port St. Tropez and,’ ‘Saint Tropez,’ and ‘The Papal Palace.’

Created in 1892, “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is an oil on canvas ‘Landscape Painting.’ In his painting, Signac captures a huge Umbrella Pine in St. Tropez, on a canvas of 25″ x 32″. The artist painted the bright light shining off the deep surface of pine needles, sea, and the grass covered land. The painting reflects a perfect blend of sky, earth, and sea. The background of “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is an abstraction of green, white, blue, yellow, and orange. The landscape behind the Bonaventure Pine tree, the cloudy sky, the mountain, and the boat sailing in the sea, promise the beauty and the passivity of the painting. Paul repeatedly placed consistently shaped dots of pigments stream and swirls, defining lustrous contours.

The best part of “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is the usage of many dots of paint like light pixel. Through ‘Pointillism,’ Paul mixes light from far away into the retina of the eye and lets the brain do the mixing of the color instead of him mixing the color on the canvas. “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” in fact, is a painting of contemporary movement, which departs from the usual ‘Photo-Realism’ of the time.

By 1900, Paul Signac moved away from ‘Pointillism,’ as he never stopped himself to one medium. He experimented with watercolors, oil paintings, pen-and-ink sketches, etchings, and lithographs. Until his death in 1935, Paul was the president of the annual Salon des Independent (Society of Independent Artists). He was a motivation mainly for André Derain, Henri Matisse and to various other amateur painters, as he inspired them towards the work of ‘Fauves’ and the ‘Cubists,’ thereby also leveraging the growth of ‘Fauvism.’ “The Bonaventure Pine in St. Tropez” is presently displayed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA.



Source by Annette Labedzki

Church Marketing – Top 10 Items to Include in Your Church Welcome Packet!

So, you put a marketing plan together, even got a budget that didn’t have “shoestring” associated with it, ran your campaign and guess what? It all came together. People have started to flow into your church. And if you have read my past articles, you are saying that you are done and have done the warm hand off to others as these folks are on their way to becoming regular visitors and perhaps even members. You job is done…..almost!

Let’s face it, marketing’s job is never done, but there is one thing that you should give some thought to before the marketing team’s job is considered done. And that is a good welcome packet.

Why have welcome packets?

A welcome packet can be a marketing tool to provide new visitors information about your church, its’ doctrine or belief’s and some of the ministries or activities that go on there. It gives the guest something to review when they have left the church and have some time to reflect.

There are several objectives of insuring your guests are given a welcome packet when they visit:

* Makes them feel welcome! You want to express your gratitude for allowing you to share and to also indicate that they are welcome to return

* Understand your structure. One of the reasons visitors come is to learn something about your church. How it is organized. What sets you apart from the other churches in the area. Welcome packets can accomplish that.

* Become familiar with your worship style (is it more singing then they would like?) and church beliefs.

* Review activities calendar. Visitors want to know the upcoming schedule of events and ministry meeting times.



What should go into the packet?

While there is no absolute must have list, here are some ideas that will help to make a great impression and give guests a reason for returning:

1. Video or DVD of your organization

– It could be a video tour of the entire grounds or maybe just a 30 second clip that tells about each ministry in the church. Perhaps it is the vision for where you want to get to.

2. Refrigerator magnets

Are you looking for an inexpensive marketing tool that has long term staying power? This may be better than you think! According to a study at Purdue University, the average American visits their refrigerator 22 times a day. What else could you get that is going to get that much exposure? And strange as it sounds, even if people don’t like them, they tend to put them on their refrigerators.

3. Letter of Greeting from the Minister

Perhaps a personalized message with an invitation to return the following week. Studies have found that a personal interaction with the Minister can have a dramatically positive effect on whether someone returns or makes a church home. (So, don’t forget about the Minister making a personal phone call to follow up the next week either!)

4. Information on the membership process of your church.

Some visitors are ready to become members from day one. They may have just moved and want to keep their denominational affiliation intact. Others just feel good and know when they have found their new church home. It takes the awkwardness out of them having to ask.

5. Invitation for on-line survey.

A quick survey of a visitor’s church experience is good. But they may feel uneasy filling out one in church especially if they are the only guest that day. Online surveys provide an easy way for you to determine how things really are since they are truly anonymous.

6. Audio recording

Could be a recent Sunday Message or perhaps something more of an invitation. Keep in mind that at the least we are a CD world. Cassettes are dead. Podcasts or downloads are a great way to get them to your website.

7. Informational brochure

– General info about the church and its’ ministries (if you can’t do a video or want to cover your bases). It could also include a brief history of the church, or the denomination if that is deemed important.

8. Calendar of events

Announcement flyers of public events such as fall festivals, Christmas programs, etc.

9. Coupons!

A coupon to turn in at the church book store or on the website for a free token of appreciation or a discount. I love the coupon that entitles the user for a free cup of coffee with the minister!

10 Tote bags or bookmarks

Both of these have become very inexpensive and help to keep your church in the guests mind. Be sure to include your website address on these!

While these are not all-inclusive, they do make a favorable impression on any church guest. A good welcome …

How to Print on Ceramics Using Two Ceramic Printing Techniques

Printing your own images, pictures, designs or text onto ceramics is easier than you might believe. This article will demonstrate two popular techniques that you can use at home to transfer images onto ceramic surfaces like plates, mugs and tiles for instance.

Method 1 – Using waterslide papers to print designs onto ceramics

This is one of the easiest craft projects you will ever do and professional looking results can be expected on your first attempt.

1 – Purchase some waterslide decal paper. If your ceramic surface is white or a light colour, choose the clear waterslide decal paper. Alternatively, if your ceramic surface is dark in colour, go for the white waterslide decal paper. Decal papers are available for both inkjet and laser printers and work differently. I shall explain the differences later in this article. A pack of 5 A4 sheets is enough to print pictures onto around 20 ceramic mugs or maybe 10 plates.

2- Open up your picture or type your text into Microsoft word or your photo editing software like Photoshop. You will need to size your work according to your ceramic surface, so for a mug printing project, you would use the top left quarter of your page and print out a test on a regular piece of paper and maybe even cut that out and place onto the mug to ensure that you are happy with the size.

3 – Load your decal paper into your printer so that your print lands onto the papers shiny side. This is the coated side of the paper that is effectively an extremely thin film that slides off the papers backing when water is applied later in the production process.

4 – Take your printed picture or text and either cut it out now or if you have filled your A4 sheet of decal paper with pictures, leave it as one piece as it will make the next stage easier.

5 – If you have purchased inkjet waterslide decal paper, you will also require some clear varnish for the next stage as you will now start to apply the varnish to your image. Ensure that you have either waited at least 30 minutes or have used a hair dryer on your print to ensure that it has dried.

6 – Apply 2 to 3 quick, even sprays of varnish over your image, separated by around 10 minutes. Do not use too much as this can harden your decal, making it awkward to apply to a curved surface. Apply to little though and you risk leaving a tiny area or two for water to engage your print, leading to an ink smudge. That said though, do not over concern yourself with applying the varnish as ceramic printing using this technique is very forgiving and following the instructions will provide great results.

7 – Cut your image out close to the edges and place into some water. You can use your fingers to hold the paper under the water and also to keep it flat as it will automatically have a tendency to curl up when it hits the water. Again, don’t worry if it does this as you can easily flatten it out again whilst under the water with your fingers.

8 – After around 30 seconds the paper backing will suddenly become loose and easy to slide off. Do not slide it off though yet. Remove the ceramic decal from the water and slide off 1 centimetre. Apply the 1 cm of film that you have slide off directly onto your ceramic surface, then slide the rest of the paper backing away, leaving you with your printed film directly on the ceramic surface. Gently feather away the water under the decal with your fingers taking care at this stage not to tear it.

9 – The decal starts to harden almost immediately and once dry you can place it in an oven for a further 10 minutes at 110c.

10 – Applying another coat of clear varnish will add extra protection to your project. Waterslide decal papers provide an excellent finish for decorative purposes. Hand wash any ceramic projects that you complete and avoid placing finished work like ceramic cups and plates into dishwashers.

The difference between inkjet and laser waterslide decal paper

The two decal papers are similar and produce the same desired results, the main difference being that clear acrylic spray / clear varnish is not required when using laser waterslide decal paper. You effectively skip steps 5 and 6 above. After you have completed your ceramic project using laser waterslide paper, you can of course apply some clear varnish for additional protection and durability.

Method 2 – Using ceramic paint to apply your own designs to ceramics

If you have some artistic flair …

The 2012 Movie Analysis

The 2012 movie, an edge-of-your-seat, mindless escapism created by veteran apocalypse director Roland Emmerich, though of poor plot structure and underdeveloped characters, is the perfect thrill for anybody who likes to see the earth smattered into tiny pieces or people running desperately for their insignificant lives. It has lots of visual candy, lots of plausible premises, and lots of goings-on that keep the entire movie moving ’til the end. It’s not executed at its best, however, and while the extent of destruction is much larger and more horrific than what we’ve ever seen before, this doesn’t make up for the incapacity of the movie to deliver a strong story.

The movie has been criticized negatively because of the reasons aforementioned a lot of times, however, and this article is not going to bash the movie any further. The 2012 movie, inconsistencies aside, is a plausible and genuine outlook of the future should the date of destruction, December 21, 2012, comes. It mashes up all the general theories regarding 2012, and presents possible outcomes and solutions to save not only humanity, but its virtues and its long-recorded history. Here is a list of what happened in the 2012 movie that could also happen in the real 2012 apocalypse:

1) The global destruction of the movie is based on the “Earth’s Crust Displacement Theory” and in the movie, it’s stated that neutrinos are bursting within the Earth’s core, causing the crusts to be rapidly displaced. The neutrino explosion is in turn supposedly caused by the peaking of the solar flares in the Sun.

2) In 2010, international leaders begin a massive, secret project intended to ensure humanity’s survival, by building futuristic arks designed to hold 400,000 people. Additional funding for the project is raised by selling tickets to the private sector for €1 billion per person, effectively cutting off the chances of majority of people to survive.

3) By 2011 they start to secretly move humanity’s valuable treasures under the guise of protecting them from terrorist attacks, such as the Mona Lisa, to save humanity’s history as well.

4) The Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar, or the Mayan Calendar, is referenced in the movie.

5) Earthquakes of intensified magnitudes wreak havoc all over the globe as a result of crust displacement. Huge buildings are destroyed, bridges are split in two, major cities are literally broken in pieces.

6) Yellowstone Caldera, a volcano in the USA, erupts, sending massive igneous stones skyrocketing in the air, resembling meteors and asteroids.

7) A mega tsunami destroys several key cities, including Washington, D.C., which kills the president of the United States.

8) The arks save the people who luckily got in. The water levels recede, new lives are beginning and a new civilization and world order is created.

If yIf you look beyond the inefficacy of the 2012 movie to show great story material that can match its great cinematography, the creators indeed have made a future that is not far from what we, as a species, are bound to do just so we can survive. The arks are very welcome options if ever those destructive events occur, especially the mega tsunami. However, these are not the only things that could happen in December 21, 2012 – we have to take into account that radiations, asteroids, or other similar stuff are also predicted to happen, so we can’t count in an ark to save us all.

In the most general sense, the 2012 movie is simply a message to all of our subconscious minds to be prepared and be vigilant even in the dreariest of moments. We are humans, and we are gifted with the ability to hope for the future, to fight for it. If and when the 2012 movie indeed comes out of the screens and into our lives, we shall be prepared, we shall come out conquerors, we always do.



Source by Brian Fieldstone

Banksy Monkey – Banksy Fallen Angel

For individuals who do not know or who are not familiar with the name Banksy, the graffiti and street artist’s success and fuss surrounding him can be intimidating indeed. Started from humble beginnings during Bristol’s aerosol boom era, his road to success was well on the way when he succeeded in developing a unique trademark technique which combined stencilling (akin to Blek le Rat’s) and graffiti writing. His technique allowed him to create his artworks quicker. Today, the majority of Banksy’s art and portraits fetch a hefty price tag. Although they are pricey, the demand for his works are nothing short of overwhelming.

It has been reported that Banksy’s artwork collection over the course of his career is massive. Among his extensive list of work include canvas prints, t-shirts, portraits, books and a film released in 2010. His artwork can be defined as witty, humorous and provoking at the same time.

The majority of Banksy’s graffiti and street art comes with cleverly thought-out captions. They complement his images perfectly. Banksy is a representation and manifestation of the society’s inner thoughts. He is also a hero and idol to street artists such as he himself in Bristol UK because it was Banksy that pushed street art to the limelight earned attention, respect and commercial value.

Banksy’s artwork is based on a series of different themes. For instance, one of his favourite subjects are monkeys. These monkeys have been portrayed and depicted under various guises and environment. They are often intimidating and provoking yet realistic in every way.

Among the many Banksy monkey artwork includes the Banksy monkey detonator, Banksy parliament, Banksy French monkey, Banksy queen monkey and many more. These monkey images represent many real-life issues done in a different vibe and with a twist. Banksy monkey has been used on an assortment of merchandise ranging from t-shirts, canvas prints, graffiti and so on.

Other than monkeys, Banksy has also been known to use angels in his artwork. As an example, Banksy Fallen Angel is a representation of a person or thing prominent falling out of favour in the eyes of the society. In Banksy Fallen Angel, an angel is seen sitting down; cigarette in one hand and a bottle of alcohol beside him on the ground. This particular piece of artwork has caused controversy due to its religious sentiments.

Another fine example of Banksy angel is widely known as Ozone’s Angel. It is Banksy’s tribute to British street artist by the name of Ozone who died when an underground train in Barking had hit him. This piece street art in question can be found in Barking. The angel is depicted with a human skull in his hand and wearing a bulletproof vest..

Banksy monkey and Banksy Fallen Angel are stellar examples of his extensive list of artwork which have appeared on numerous different form of merchandise and products available to art lovers, collectors and just about anyone who are able to afford it. They are among the few of his long list of artwork that remains highly sought after and widely reported to be wise investment choices.



Source by Edmund Boey

Be Yourself

Here’s the thing… you still have to make every marketing and sales message all about the WIIFM* for your target audience. But it’s how you do this – the words you choose and your behavior – that makes the connection with the marketplace all about you.

Let’s look at what the experts advise. By the way, while these tips sound bizarre — they’re real nuggets, so stay with me:

1. Be an authentic liar.

2. Be your own valentine.

3. Fight bull.

Here’s how these successful experts connect with the marketplace – and you can too:

Be an authentic liar. In his latest book, All Marketers Are Liars, Seth Godin explains “the power of telling authentic stories in a low-trust world.” Mildly unsettling at first, he makes the case that our buyers are actually the ones who are lying. To themselves. About why they want to buy from us.

Successful marketers are just providing the stories that our buyers choose to believe. But here’s the rub: you have to really live the story you’re telling. The second a potential buyer smells anything less than complete dedication to what you’re selling, you “cross the line from fib to fraud.” It’s simply not good enough to have a good story. You have to live up to it as well. If you’re a cobbler with no shoes, why should your clients take your advice?

Be a role model for what you sell, and nothing less. Then tell a good story about it, to buyers who want to believe.

Be your own valentine. In his hot little book, Little Red Book of Selling, Jeffrey Gitomer takes a tough-love approach to helping us be the best version of ourselves we can be.

My personal favorites are:

o No Whining (“Don’t whine to me that the customer won’t return your call. Study voicemail. Don’t whine to me that your boss is a jerk. Get a new one. Don’t whine to me that your company won’t give you a laptop. Go buy one.”)

o Kick Your Own Ass (“Ever have a bad day? Ever lost a sale you thought you had? Ever had someone say yes to you and three days later just evaporate? Wanna know what to do about it…? Kick your own ass. No one is going to hand you success…that’s something you have to do for yourself.”)

The heart of Gitomer’s message is put your heart into your work…and if you don’t love what you sell, go sell something else. No amount of cleverly packaged marketing spin can camouflage a missing heart. Your clients will see right through it and won’t buy from you.

Research shows that people buy professional services because of trust. In Gitomer’s words, “If they like you, and they believe you, and they trust you, and they have confidence in you…then they MAY buy from you.”

Let your heart shine through in your words and actions. If you do, your clients will like, believe, trust, have confidence, and buy from you.

Fight bull. In their recent book, Why Business People Speak Like Idiots: A Bullfighter’s Guide, Brian Fugere, Chelsea Hardaway, and Jon Warshawsky give it to us straight. Stop using words that are meaningless, boring, indirect and obscure. Start communicating with your own voice, personality, and style.

How many times have you sat through mind-numbing presentations, meaningless PowerPoint slides, or felt no connection with (no trust in?) the person trying to sell you on their idea, service or product?

So stop. Just stop adding to the bull that piles up every day in business communications. Talk and write to your target audience person-to-person. Ask them simple questions that get to the heart of their wants and needs. Tell them that you’ve thought a lot about their situation and have some ideas that might help them. And do it without the crutch of slides, silly business-speak, or slick messaging.

In other words, just be yourself.

*WIIFM: What’s In It For Me?

References

Fugere, B., Hardaway, C., and Warshawsky, J. (2005). Why Business People Speak Like Idiots: A Bullfighter’s Guide. New York: Free Press.

Gitomer, J. (2004). The Little Red Book of Selling. Austin: Bard Press.

Godin, S. (2005). All Marketers Are Liars. New York: Penguin.



Source by Kelly O’Brien

Portrait Painting Techniques – How to Paint Hair

Painting Hair

Painting portraits is a great hobby that gives both the artist and the model much pleasure. It is better for both however if the texture, color and flow of the hair closely matches the model. Follow these steps to obtain more realistic colors in your next portrait.

Before painting hair, you should always have the rest of the face finished first. The flesh color extend into the hairline. This is so that the flesh color shows through and the hair does not look unnatural. Remember that hair is much more than one layer, therefore, you need to paint it in layers. There are also hundreds of shades of hair color. To keep it as simple as possible try to base each portrait with, blonde, brown (this includes red), black or gray.

Under paint the entire hair area with a very light mixture of one of these colors. These are called undertones. This under painting will actually be the highlights because as you work you will not cover all of this. Notice where the dark or shadowed areas are and paint them in. Now use a darker color and start stroking in hair strands. Black is the opposite. Start with the darkest as the undertones, then add lighter layers. Continue until you are satisfied with the results. It is very easy to overdo hair. Know when to stop!

Here are the colors you will use for any hair tone. Remember to apply the undertones first

Blonde (Reds) Titanium White, Cadmium Yellow Medium, (Alizarin Crimson)

Use Burnt Umber to darken blonde and red hair

Brown Titanium White, Burnt Umber

Use Cadmium Red or Ivory Black for red or blackish tones

Black Ivory Black Undertones

Warm Black – Ivory Black & touch of Brown

Cool Black – Ivory Black & touch of Blue

Gray Titanium White, Ivory Black for a Gray Undertone

Warm Gray – Ivory Black & touch of Brown

Cool Gray – Ivory Black & touch of Blue

Start the first layer, or undertones with a very watery mixture of paint. Use a medium to large brush because you are not painting details. Don’t try to paint in individual hair strands at this stage. Start adding more paint color to your brush and add some more layers. Pull the brush in the direction of the flow of hair. Use a liner brush to add some indications of individual strands. Add any deep pockets of color to really give the portrait depth. I added some deep shadow on the side of the neck.

Congratulations! You should be well on your way to being your own master portrait painter. As always, don’t forget to sign your painting.



Source by Julie Shoemaker

A Psychological Profile Of Janis Joplin

“The greater the feeling of inferiority that has been experienced, the more powerful is the urge to conquest and the more violent the emotional agitation.” —Alfred Adler

Biographical Overview

Janice Joplin was born January 19, 1943 in Port Arthur Texas to Seth and Dorothy Joplin. Janice was the first born child in a family that would eventually include a sister Laura, who was born 6 years later, and a brother Michael, who was born 10 years later. Janice’s early family life was relatively normal, and as a child she was exceptionally curious and bright. Janice often made up stories as a child and began writing plays while in the first grade, and even at a very young age her creative talent seemed to be developing.

One early story recounted in Myra Friedman’s (1973) book on Janis, recounts how Seth would take the Janis and eventually her siblings down to the post office to look at the pictures of the wanted men as a form of entertainment. Given Janis’s later utter and total disregard for the law and conventionality in her life, one wonders if Janis didn’t develop some kind of sympathy for the “outlaw” from these early experiences, as she certainly began to view herself as existing outside of the bounds of normal society.

In Janis’s words, “The whole world turned on me” when she entered High School, and these years seemed to have an especially profound influence on Janis as well as her later work. Port Arthur was in many ways a rough and even violent city, and as a port town had a number of bars and houses of prostitution to service the men who came to work there. Janis witnessed extreme racism while growing up in Port Arthur, and her tolerance and acceptance of people from other races quickly earned her the nickname “nigger lover” which was one of many that she would eventually acquire in Port Arthur. During this period Janis also gained weight and developed bad skin, and she was often also called a “pig” by the other children in the school.

Following High School Janice enrolled at Lamar State College which she found was much like her High School in Port Arthur, as she again experienced a great deal of rejection here and eventually dropped out. With her parent’s blessing, Janis moved to Los Angeles to live with one of her aunts. Janis eventually moved out of her aunt’s home into a place of her own in Venice Beach and it was during this trip that she began to seriously use drugs including heroin. Having nearly died during her experiences in Venice Beach, Janice again returned to Port Arthur, and eventually decided to return to school, this time at the University of Texas in Austin.

It was during this period of her life where Janis began performing seriously as a musician. She had discovered the blues through listening to records by Odetta and Bessie Smith, and Janis showed an amazing ability to imitate these singers, which was a lifelong talent she had developed even as a young girl. Janis would often play in coffeehouses and other campus spots around Austin, and it was during these formative years where she was able to put together her blues, folk, and rock influences into her own integrated and unique sound. Janis’s favorite place to play was the legendary Threadgill’s where she became close friends with owner Ken Threadgill who was a very positive force in Janis’s life.

Although Austin included many more anti-establishment types than Port Arthur, Janis was still ridiculed and mocked at the University of Texas, and her sense of inferiority as a result of this reached its pinnacle when she was nominated for the “Ugliest Man on Campus” award while attending school in Austin. This was the final blow to Janis in Texas, and shortly after this even she packed her bags and moved to San Francisco to pursue a career as a singer.

Janis moved to Haight Ashbury in 1966 which at the time was the epicenter of the 1960’s. Bands such as the Grateful Dead and the Jefferson Airplane were also coming up at this time, and the music and freedom made the Haight in the 1960’s for many a magical time and place to be. Janis found an incredible sense of belonging with Big Brother during this time, and their early work as a band represented the raw energy and improvisational nature of rock and Roll that people were beginning to take notice of.

Janice soon began to outshine Big Brother however, and although they were a highly energetic live band, their improvisational style did not translate well in recording sessions. Janice on the other hand took a great interest in the recording sessions, and was committed to recording an album …

Lighting a Fine Craft Trade Show Booth – Options for the Budget-Conscious Artist

Good lighting is a main ingredient of a successful trade-show booth. Just the right lighting system can help an artist create the atmosphere of a fine-craft gallery. This will lure gallery owners off the isles and into your booth – the first step toward making a sale.

Lighting is a relatively expensive investment. So how does the budget-conscious artist find the right solution?

When it comes to choosing a lighting system, artists new to the trade show circuit often become overwhelmed. Prices vary wildly, and each convention center may have its own lighting rules. Lighting technology is changing rapidly, making the choices harder still.

This article details what I learned while tackling the challenge of lighting my 10’X10’ booth at the American Craft Retailers Expo (ACRE), a large wholesale show for American and Canadian craft artists. As I am new to trade shows, this information is meant only as a pointer for artists in the process of choosing lighting, and perhaps also for more seasoned artists looking to update their systems.

In examining many different lighting options, my objective was to illuminate my glass jewelry beautifully but inexpensively. I wanted the lights to be lightweight and modular, to fit in boxes for shipping to the show. I was looking for contemporary styling, in silver or black. And I wanted to have at least one special lighting effect – not too flashy – to give my booth a unique element.

In his CD on booth design, art business consultant Bruce Baker suggests 1,000 watts will light up a 10’X10’ booth very effectively. I decided to stay at or under 500 watts, however, because the ACRE show includes 500 watts with the booth price, and the halogen lighting I ultimately decided upon illuminates my displays very well. Since I bought the lights at a “big-box” store with sites in virtually every city in the U.S., I can add more lights once I’m at the trade show if necessary.

The Battle of the Bulb

Contractors Choice Lighting (www.ccl-light.com) says a light fixture is simply a “bulb holder.” The bulb, therefore, should drive one’s choice of a fixture. This is somewhat true for trade-show lighting, although the fixtures may dictate the types of bulbs, depending on the choices available at the store where one shops for the lights. The CCL website offers a “Bulb Photometrics” page ([http://ccl-light.com/photometrics.html]), whose graphical representation is a refreshing departure from the complex descriptions of lighting options that have proliferated on the web.

Halogen is the bulb of choice for many trade show exhibitors. It offers a crisp, white light. Although people commonly refer to halogen as non-incandescent, it is in fact a kind of incandescent lamp. It generates light by using a thin filament wire made of tungsten, heated to white by passing an electric current through it. According to General Electric, the first halogen lamp was developed in 1959 – not too long ago for many of us!

Halogen bulbs differ significantly from the traditional type of incandescents we grew up with. The halogen bulb’s filament is surrounded by halogen gases (iodine or bromine, specifically). These gases let the filaments operate at higher temperatures. The end result is a higher light output per watt.

The gases also do something rather miraculous: Tungsten tends to evaporate off the filament over time, and the gases actually help re-deposit the tungsten onto the filament. This extends the bulb’s life way beyond that of the traditional incandescent bulb, whose evaporated tungsten clings to the walls of the bulb like a smoky apparition and eventually the uncoated filament snaps. Who hasn’t rattled a burnt-out light bulb and enjoyed the jazzy cymbal sound of the broken filament inside?

In addition to giving off more light than traditional incandescent bulbs, halogen bulbs emit a whiter light that provides better color rendition. “For highlighting and bringing out true colors, use halogen lamps,” suggests USA Light and Electric’s website (www.usalight.com). “Nothing looks better than the drama brought in with halogen lamps.”

Baker also suggests halogen lights – floodlights in particular – for a contemporary look, especially for jewelry and glass. It’s important to consider that other fine craft materials such as ceramics and wood might be better enhanced with halogen spotlights, or even with some of the more traditional incandescent lights that emit a warmer color.

Having decided upon halogen lighting, my next task would be to choose bulbs. The ACRE show takes place at the Las Vegas Convention Center, which has instituted a strict halogen lighting policy. Each light cannot exceed 75 watts, and all halogen bulbs must be factory sealed in glass (not in a removable lens or linear shape).

Thankfully, there is plenty of factory-sealed halogen lighting, in the form of PAR halogen bulbs. PAR is an acronym for “parabolic aluminized reflector.” PAR bulbs …

Modern Financial Management Theories & Small Businesses

The following are some examples of modern financial management theories formulated on principles considered as ‘a set of fundamental tenets that form the basis for financial theory and decision-making in finance’ (Emery et al.1991). An attempt would be made to relate the principles behind these concepts to small businesses’ financial management.

Agency Theory

Agency theory deals with the people who own a business enterprise and all others who have interests in it, for example managers, banks, creditors, family members, and employees. The agency theory postulates that the day to day running of a business enterprise is carried out by managers as agents who have been engaged by the owners of the business as principals who are also known as shareholders. The theory is on the notion of the principle of ‘two-sided transactions’ which holds that any financial transactions involve two parties, both acting in their own best interests, but with different expectations.

Problems usually identified with agency theory may include:

i. Information asymmetry- a situation in which agents have information on the financial circumstances and prospects of the enterprise that is not known to principals (Emery et al.1991). For example ‘The Business Roundtable’ emphasised that in planning communications with shareholders and investors, companies should consider never misleading or misinforming stockholders about the corporation’s operations or financial condition. In spite of this principle, there was lack of transparency from Enron’s management leading to its collapse;

ii. Moral hazard-a situation in which agents deliberately take advantage of information asymmetry to redistribute wealth to themselves in an unseen manner which is ultimately to the detriment of principals. A case in point is the failure of the Board of directors of Enron’s compensation committee to ask any question about the award of salaries, perks, annuities, life insurance and rewards to the executive members at a critical point in the life of Enron; with one executive on record to have received a share of ownership of a corporate jet as a reward and also a loan of $77m to the CEO even though the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the US bans loans by companies to their executives; and

iii. Adverse selection-this concerns a situation in which agents misrepresent the skills or abilities they bring to an enterprise. As a result of that the principal’s wealth is not maximised (Emery et al.1991).

In response to the inherent risk posed by agents’ quest to make the most of their interests to the disadvantage of principals (i.e. all stakeholders), each stakeholder tries to increase the reward expected in return for participation in the enterprise. Creditors may increase the interest rates they get from the enterprise. Other responses are monitoring and bonding to improve principal’s access to reliable information and devising means to find a common ground for agents and principals respectively.

Emanating from the risks faced in agency theory, researchers on small business financial management contend that in many small enterprises the agency relationship between owners and managers may be absent because the owners are also managers; and that the predominantly nature of SMEs make the usual solutions to agency problems such as monitoring and bonding costly thereby increasing the cost of transactions between various stakeholders (Emery et al.1991).

Nevertheless, the theory provides useful knowledge into many matters in SMEs financial management and shows considerable avenues as to how SMEs financial management should be practiced and perceived. It also enables academic and practitioners to pursue strategies that could help sustain the growth of SMEs.

Signaling Theory

Signaling theory rests on the transfer and interpretation of information at hand about a business enterprise to the capital market, and the impounding of the resulting perceptions into the terms on which finance is made available to the enterprise. In other words, flows of funds between an enterprise and the capital market are dependent on the flow of information between them. (Emery et al, 1991). For example management’s decision to make an acquisition or divest; repurchase outstanding shares; as well as decisions by outsiders like for example an institutional investor deciding to withhold a certain amount of equity or debt finance. The emerging evidence on the relevance of signaling theory to small enterprise financial management is mixed. Until recently, there has been no substantial and reliable empirical evidence that signaling theory accurately represents particular situations in SME financial management, or that it adds insights that are not provided by modern theory (Emery et al.1991).

Keasey et al(1992) writes that of the ability of small enterprises to signal their value to potential investors, only the signal of the disclosure of an earnings forecast were found to be positively and significantly related to enterprise value amongst the following: percentage of equity retained by owners, the net proceeds raised by an equity issue, the choice of financial advisor to an issue (presuming that a more reputable …

Comparing the Epson Stylus Pro 9890 to the Stylus Pro 9900 and 9880

This article will compare the 44-inch wide Epson Stylus Pro 9890, announced Fall 2010, with the Stylus Pro 9900 and 9880. While these printers share many of the same features, a few differences will be examined. These differences include the ink set, color gamut and print speeds.

Epson Stylus Pro 9880

The 9880 was released in mid-2007 replacing the Stylus Pro 9800. The main difference between the 9880 and the 9800 was a reformulated magenta ink formula. The two new inks were called Vivid Magenta and Vivid Light Magenta. This printer uses a total of eight inks with the choice of either Matte Black or Photo Black ink being loaded in the printer at any given time. A purge process is required to switch black inks, usually taking about 15 minutes and more than $30 worth of ink.

With each model that is released, print speed usually improves. The 9880 can produce a 16×20 in 6:41 and a 20×30 in about 12:00. The print speed is based on the printer being used in SuperFine 1440 dpi mode.

Epson Stylus Pro 9900

The 9900 was released in December of 2008 as an additional option to the 9880 aimed primarily at the packaging and proofing market. This printer added an Orange and Green ink to help expand the color gamut that the printer is able to produce. Epson also added the ability to auto-switch between Photo Black and Matte Black ink. This auto-switch capability is something that photographers and fine art printers had been waiting for. Based on this and the expanded color gamut, those businesses needing to produce high quality photographic and fine art output quickly migrated to this printer.

The Epson Stylus Pro 9900 also offered improved print speeds over the 9880. Print times are a minimum of 25% faster than the 9880. The 9900 can produce a 16×20 in 3:47 and a 20×30 in 6:39. Like the 9880, the print speed is based on using SuperFine 1449 dpi mode.

Epson Stylus Pro 9890

The Epson Stylus Pro 9890 was released in December of 2010. As stated previously, the 9900 initially targeted the packaging and proofing market. The 9890 was designed with the photographic and fine art print market in mind.

When compared to the 9900, the 9890 has the same ink set, minus the orange and green inks. While the orange and green inks expanded the color gamut compared to the 9880, most photographers and fine art printers couldn’t take full advantage of the gamut produced by these two inks. The end result is a printer that performs like the 9900, but users have the option of purchasing this printer at a lower price point and do not have to stock two additional inks.

The 9890 also offers improved print speeds compared to the 9880. These print speeds are identical to the 9900. A 16×20 can be printed in 3:47 and a 20×30 in 6:39 in SuperFine 1440 dpi mode.

Conclusions

The Stylus Pro 9900 and 9890 meet the needs of those businesses requiring high-resolution, photographic quality prints. Both printers offer an expanded color gamut over the 9880, with the 9900 having the largest gamut. However, the 9890 should meet the needs of the vast majority of users, especially photographers and fine art printers. Both printers also offer improved print speeds over the Stylus Pro 9880. Keep in mind that print speeds are measured when the print head starts moving and when the print is finished. Total throughput times will vary based on RIP software, image size, resolution, and printer connection type.



Source by Sean P McGettigan

7 Reasons Why You Should Read Fiction

I'm a bit of an oddball amongst reporters, because I do not condemn the television set. On the contrary, I think everyone, and especially serious writers, should watch plenty of TV, including TV comedies and dramas, because the audio / visual format provides a perspective that you can not get from reading a novel. This flies in the face of the common rant, that TV is a scourge that should be eliminated from the entertainment landscape.

On the other hand, the recent trend has been to watch more TV and more movies and read less, and when one reads, to read non-fiction instead of fiction. The reasons given range from "Reading is hard" to "Novels are uninformative." But what most people do not realize is that the written word, and fiction in particular, provides benefits you can not get from other media. For example:

  1. Reading fiction can help you improve your people skills. A 2008 study by Raymond Mar found that people who read more fiction score higher on tests of empathy and social acumen, and that people who read more non-fiction score lower . This is due because through fiction, you experience the characters' social interactions and relationships in a way impossible with most non-fiction.
  2. Reading fiction stimulates the imagination. While reading fiction, your mind reconstructs each scene in much more detail than the author described it. It does so by visualizing the non-existent people and places of the story, often basing these visualizations on actual people and places you've seen. This is the human ability to imagine, to daydream, to speculate, to ponder. The ability to imagine separates us from other animals. It allows us to strategize, to plan, to reason, to learn, to create a better world than previously before.
  3. Books are cheaper hour-for-hour of entertainment than movies or DVD's. Especially in tight economic times, it makes sense to foster the enjoyment of written fiction. For the same amount a 2-hour movie or DVD costs, you can get a book that will entertain you for days, or weeks. Or you can borrow it from your local library for free.
  4. Reading relieves stress, and does not overstimulate like TV can. Most modern television programming is designed to capture your attention by constantly pinging your brain with abrupt sounds and transitions. This gears your brain up and creates stress. Research at the University of Sussex found that reading can reduce stress levels by up to 68 percent. Or as cognitive neuropsychologist Dr David Lewis put it, "Losing yourself in a book is the ultimate relaxation ."
  5. Fiction allows us to enter into the narrative, imagine ourselves there, in ways that non-fiction can not. Even a biography is already finished before you begin reading it, because it's about a real person. Even if you do not know the specific history of a particular biographical figure, biographies are seldom written about losers, whereas the loser is the staple of the fictional story. Or as one English teacher from Wichita, Kansas put it, " Fiction's unknowability causes it to be a whole lot like life as we experience it."
  6. The mind absorbs new information most easily through stories. Humans are by nature story creatures, learning through experience and metaphor. Teaching through storytelling is a tradition as old as human thought itself. This is one reason why, even though fiction is about people who never exist and events that never happened, all fictional people and events are based on reality. As psychologists Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell explain in their book Dreaming Reality , "The reason that stories are so satisfying and illuminating is that they tap into the same process that nature uses for the transmission of knowledge."
  7. Reading, and reading fiction in particular, can make you a better speaker and writer. In modern times, communication skills are more important than ever. And because storytelling is such a key skill in transmitting knowledge, you will become a better communicator if you learn how to tell stories. And the best way to learn how to tell stories is to see them being told. In general, exposing yourself to the language, as happens when you read, will instinctively improve your own language and communication skills.

Still can not imagine yourself reading through a whole novel? Try the short story. Yes, the short story has been dying for some time, but that's because readers have been uninterested. Even so, classic and newly released short story collections continue to be published, and for the busy, 21'st-century citizen, the short story offers the benefits of fiction in bite-sized portions that he can more easily enjoy.

Fiction should be a staple of every person's lifestyle, because anyone who does not read it at least often is missing out on the benefits it offers.



Source by J. Timothy King

Translation: Is It a Science or an Art?

Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a source text and the subsequent creation of an equivalent text in other words, transmission of information into another language.

This definition seems to explain accurately the essence of the so-called science. If you’re reading this, then probably you most likely either a written or oral translator and you have to understand this classic tackle that continually faces almost every translator: you understand the context of a source text, but you are not able to find the equivalent in your own language; you are also not allowed to change the context of a text and your main aim is to find the solution and find appropriate words in your native language.

From this point of view, everything depends on the text that is in front of you. Legal document or a patent must be translated with precision surgery, while at the same time sales presentations, marketing documents, as well as artworks must sound naturally on a target language.

To give a translation natural-sounding requires a certain linguistic skills, understanding of language and its processes. Translation can hardly be called a science, but it is rather the inner music of language, a stream of phrases that are connected into the text, with a precise set of terminology.

Someone still believes that translation must be considered as an exact science. They say that the main thing is professional skills and knowledge, but not a subtle perception or sense of language. The science alleges it is a properly prepared and trained mind that can easily transform one language to another – like a computer.

Translators can be divided into two groups: those who always use logic, concentrating on the original text, and those who do it with a sense, focusing on a language. It also applies to consecutive and simultaneous interpreters. There are technical translators who possess the ability to translate a technical text and make it sounds quite naturally and translators who literary translate the text that adhere to the original context and create a huge number of pages, hardly amenable to reading and understanding (the last statement applies in particular to translation of literary texts in Chinese or Japanese languages in Europe).

The process of translation and interpretation reflects how it is complex to transmit communication messages. And especially if you are doing interpretation, being a person who wants to facilitate communication and understanding between the two other people, you might want to translate something that was not said: the “hidden” meaning of words or something that someone did not say out loud, for example, because of uncertainty. Without exaggeration I can say that you, as an interpreter, can influence the fate of nations. A good example of what you’ll find in a novel by Javier Marias “White Heart» (A Heart So White). Read it if you are interested in the literature on translation activities.



Source by Sergii Litvinov