Sierra Leonean Poetry – It’s Emergence and Features As it Was Struggling to Take Shape

Sierra Leonean poetry started in the late 19th century with poems published in English and the lingua franca, Krio in The Sierra Leone Weekly News, amongst the first newspapers to be established in the colony in 1860. The most famous of all the Sierra Leonean newspapers (which were of high quality) in the late 19th and 20th centuries, it was founded in September 1884, by Rev. J.C May aided by Dr. E. W. Blyden and edited by J. C. May’s brother, Cornelius, who later became mayor of Freetown in the 1920s.

Poems were sometimes written by settlers, mostly Europeans, who had migrated into the country. The first Krio poems appeared in the issue of The Sierra Leone Weekly News of Saturday April 21st 1881. Others appeared in the issue of June 23rd 1888 and July 1907. Though most poems were written by non-Sierra Leoneans, they served as sources of inspiration to the educated Sierra Leoneas who thus became anxious to prove that they were as competent poets as their European counterparts. Poems were written usually in regular patterns of feet, lines and rhyme schemes as was the vogue then. Consequently there was an upsurge in the publication of poems in the newspapers.This practice continued for quite a long time, according to Leo Spitzer’s The Creoles of Sierra Leone which contains a whole range of such poems.

Then came Gladys Casely-Hayford and Thomas Decker who were writing poems in Krio. Gladys Casely-Hayford’s first selection of published poems was titled in Krio Take um so (1948). In 1948 three Krio poems were published by Thomas Decker. These were ‘Plasas’,’Yesterday, Tiday en Tumara’, ‘Slip Gud’.

But these early publication of poems in Krio in The Sierra Leone Weekly News had a restrictive and constrictive effect on the even-handed development of Sierra Leonean poetry. For it helped to confine Sierra Leonean poetry to the Western Area. Parts of the country were thus left preoccupying themselves with oral poetry as there was no written literature available there then.

There has always been direct relationship between the development of written literature and education. Education in Sierra Leone was mainly concentrated in that early colonial period in the Western Area.. It was only later that some schools got built in the provinces. But inspite of this, education was not as widely and readily received by the provincials for many failed to send their children to school early. It was in only in1906 that the first secondary school was established in the provinces.

The head start the Western Area had in education and the lukewarm attitude of the people in the other areas towards education led to most of the recognized poets coming mainly from the Western Area. This also resulted in the poets being manly Krio who largely failed to penetrate and exploit the rich cultural traditions and customs of the country of which they were largely ignorant. As a result their works were characterized by the absence of traditional myths, legends and lore unlike the case of other West African writers then writing especially the Nigerians, Christopher Okigbo, Wole Soyinka and J.P Clark who made much use of such oral lore. Christopher Okigbo for his part often used the myth of the watermaid in his poems while both Wole Soyinka and J.P.Clark used in common the myth of Abiku amongst others.

The poetry of the pioneering Sierra Leonean poets was infused instead of traditional and cultural materials with Christian religious doctrines and principles and moral platitudes. Little of even the emergent Krio culture were purveyed through them. But they also wrote about burning social issues of the times.

But in a poem like ‘Joseph’s Betrothal’ Gladys Casely -Hayford transposes the Krio traditional ‘put-stop’ ceremony to the Jewish situation of Joseph and Mary, the earthly parents of Jesus. In ‘Nativity’ the baby Jesus is wrapped in ‘blue lappah’ and laid in’home tanned door skin hide’, instead of a swaddling band and a manger. Later poets made use of some cultural material. Lemuel Johnson in ‘Prodigal’s Canticle’ features ‘Awujoh’ and ‘KuOmojade’ two Krio traditional ceremonies.

The subsequent spread of education accompanied by missionary activities in almost all parts of the country promoted the spread of literature which led to breaking of the previous monopoly the Western Area had on the production of poetry. As a result there has been a considerable increase in the volume of poetry written in the country over the past four decades. The impetus to this was given to it by efforts at Fourah Bay College, Njala University College, Milton Margai Teachers College in promoting and hosting literary events such as creative writing, poetry reading amongst others. These efforts were complemented by those of the writers association, the Fourah Bay College Bookshop and various campus bulletins and magazines.

The bulk of Sierra Leonean …

6 Facts About Oil Paint

1. The earliest known paintings that were done in oils date back to the 7th century BC. These paintings were Buddhist murals that were discovered in caves in Western Afghanistan. Oil paint didn’t become widespread for use in art works until the 15th century, when it became popular throughout Europe. Jan van Eyck, a 15th century Flemish painter, is widely believed to have invented it, though in reality he did not invent it, instead he developed it.

2. Oil paint is credited with revolutionising art. One of its key properties is that it’s very slow to dry. It gave artists a lot more time to work on their paintings and it allowed them to correct any mistakes they might have made. Oil paints allowed for artists’ creativity to flourish more because artists could devote more time to each painting. Many of the most widely praised paintings were done in oils.

3. For a few centuries artists had to store their oil paints in animal bladders. This was because the paint tube wasn’t invented until 1841. It was invented by John Goffe Rand, an American painter. Before the tube was invented, artists would have to mix their paints themselves before painting. They would have to grind the pigment up themselves, then carefully mix in the binder and thinner.

4. The most basic type of oil paint is made up of ground-up pigment, a binder and a thinner, which is usually turpentine. For the binder there are lots of different substances that can be used, including linseed oil, walnut oil and poppy seed oil; each of these gives the paint different effects and has different drying times.

5. There are modern versions of oil paint that can dry a lot more quickly than the standard version. The way that it dries is not by evaporation, but by oxidation, the process where substances gain oxygen. It is generally accepted that the typical painting done in oils will be dry to touch after about two weeks, though it can take six months to a year before the painting’s actually dry enough to be varnished.

6. Oil paint is very durable and tough, so it’s used as a finish and protector. It can be used on wood and metal and in both cases, it can be used internally as well as externally. It’s often applied to wood during building construction and can be found on metallic surfaces on things like planes, bridges and ships.

Source by Joanne Perkins

21 Tips for Being a Master Socialite

I’m going to share some of the methods and a few easy tricks for increasing your social proof and mystery quotient. Including how to remember people’s names, how to turn cockiness into charisma, 4 easy tips that makes you seem much more genuine, how to talk about what you do, how to make a very memorable impression when meeting women, how to get invited and how to get on guest list.

Get invited

Being invited to swanky parties and events is easier in this day of age now than ever before, go on Facebook or LinkedIn and join the groups in our city related to the following.

  • Entertainment
  • Nightlife
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Professional Networking

Initially you may have to pay the minimal cover charge, consider this an investment in your social proof. As you get to know the organizers better they will hook you up. Initially you may not know anyone at the events, this is ok, go anyway bring a friend if you have someone who will go with you.

Get on guest list

Guest list is primarily a tool that event marketers use to get people in the door. Shot the event marketer a text message, email or social media message asking…

Who do I need to sweet talk to get on guest list?

Obviously its them and in my experience the vast majority of the time they are happy to hook you up. Ask for at least a +4 on guest list. That way you can invite you friends (who don’t know the way this system works) and tell them to drop your name at the door. This is another great way of increasing social proof.

There are instances when a guest list is not a marketing tool and when the door cover is major revenue center for the event organizers. In these cases you should just pay the cover to show your support for the event or contact the event organizer about getting involved, more on this below.

Be involved with the event, marginally

Being the primary coordinator of an event or party is a pain in the ass & takes a lot of work. Instead look for events or parties that you can get involved in marginally as a sponsor of some sort, host or affiliate promoter. Being involved immediately gives you higher authority at the event. When people ask about your involvement insist that you are no one important, even though it’s obvious that you are. This makes you come across as very personable and genuine.

Know the owner

Knowing the owner of the venue immediately drastically increases your social proof. In my experience most venue owners are easy to meet and establish a friendly rapport with, here’s a very easy way to do it.

When you get good service at a bar or venue (If you are a socialite you should be going to frequenting venues that provide excellent service) ask to see the owner. When the owner comes over let them know that you experienced great service and will be coming back. Then make sure you give the owner your business card. Tell the owner you will be writing them a good review on or Google local, this is golden to the ears of a venue owner. They will be tripping over themselves next time you arrive at their venue to give you great service & drinks on the house.

For even more social proof introduce people to the owner, this makes them feel really special.

Drink Patron Red bull

This cocktail of potent premium liquid is very unique and makes you come across as unique and slightly adventuresome. It also gives you economic proof because everyone knows it’s not a cheap drink.

Turn your cockiness into charisma

Act slightly aloof but at the same time show a lot of interest in other people. The world is full of boring people with over inflated egos, if you are also friendly you come across as one of those rare people who actually deserve to be a little cocky. A master socialite is magnanimous, meaning that people are drawn to them because they make them feel great. The next 4 tips will explain how to do this.

Remember people’s names

The vast majority of people are terrible at this, remembering people’s names can do wonders for you in the social scene. There’s a simple memory-association method that makes it a breeze

When you meet people try to visualize something physical that sounds like their name does, go with the 1st thing that comes to mind, no matter how ridiculous… Now visualize that thing on the most prominent part of their face or physique. Here’s an table that breaks this down.

Name: Chris

Sounds Like: Christ visualizea cross

Visualization: Visualize a cross on …

Sublimation Printing and the Advantages and Disadvantages of This Print Method

Sublimation printing is the process where photo quality images, graphics or text can be transferred to a wide range of items including garments, metals, acrylics to name a few via heat transfer.

Specialised sublimation ink must be used as when this ink is heated it changes its state from a solid to a gas, without the need for the liquid phase. When this gas come into contact with polymer fibres it is abkle to pass through them, which in turn permantly dyes the fabric.

For the Sublimation process to work effectively the items to be printed must be first poloymer coated or already polymer based. (ie poloyester tshirt)

Because almost any item can be polymer coated this process alows prints onto almost anything, such as ceramic mugs, glass, metal sheets, acrylic and other unisub items like mousmats, coasters or phone cases to name a few. Sublimation printables are constantly updating, as long as the item can be polymer coated and heat pressed it is highly likely it can be sublimated.

Because of this sublimation printing is vast becoming one of the most popular printing methods within the industry.

The advantages of sublimation printing are as follows;

  • Sublimation method allows you to print full color images onto hard surfaces with a polymer coating.
  • Screen printing can be a complicated learning process and become quite messy where as sublimation is an easier process to master.
  • Sublimation allows the use of a full colour spectrum.
  • Cost the same amount to print 1 item that it does to print 1000, meaning the customer doesn’t need to order minimum order quantities, making sublimation the perfect print process for small business looking for promotional items, or the gift personalisation market.
  • The customer can completely customise. Sublimation printing does not require screens or specialist plates, meaning its a simple process to customise designs with any elements that change such as individual names, team numbers.
  • Sublimation can be a quick process depending on order which could allow companies to offer same day or in some cases, same hour printing.

As with anything there can be disadvantages, and sublimation is the same. Some of the disadvantages for sublimation printing are as follows;

  • The inks can be quite expensive to buy compared to other OEM ink printers, which is usually factored into the pricing of sublimated products.
  • The items to be printed need to be either made of polymer fabrics or coated with polymer to ensure the sublimation process works effectively.
  • Printables are required to be ideally white or very lightly couloured. Because the colour is dyes into the fabric sublimation printing cannot be used on dark printables such as black tshirts.
  • Although with the sublimation process it is possible to access the whole colour spectrum, it is very difficult to mange the colours on the printers, this has been helped over the years with the introduction of the powerdrivers.

Sublimation is really coming into its own and is a rapidly growing sector, its clear to see with the advantages raised above why this is.

Source by Adam Storr

The Difference Between Promotion and Event Marketing

Understanding the role of promotion and event marketing within any campaign requires a clear knowledge of the function of promotion and it’s impact on achieving marketing goals.

By design, individual or short-lived promotions drive immediate response, while long-term, repeat campaigns are designed to build consumer loyalty to a specific product or service.

Keep It Simple!

It’s important to remember that promotions need to be simple – for the product and the consumer. The product can be anything from radio stations to a can of coffee. The goal is always to get the product into the consumer’s hand. You can achieve that goal by promotion or by event, but they have different elements that make up start to finish. Promotions are (at the shortest) two weeks long and can continue for a couple of months. Events are generally from one day to a week and serve multiple goals for the client.

Promotion and event marketing are often seen as one entity, but both require clear, precise goals that are measurable by attendance, participation and/or sales. Both are an important part of strengthening customer/company relationships. Over the course of many years working in promotions, you gain experience. Experience is what you need to keep promotions successful.

Success Strategies

Here are two examples of successful promotions that were developed for clients, such as; Jack-in-the-Box, McBride Homes, Seven Up, Wehrenberg Theaters, Chads Coalition for Mental Health…all have generated response, sales and revenue for the organizations. Here’s a brief explanation of how some of them worked and the results:

Jack-in-the-Box was participating in a Mid-West event. We developed a promotion that brought the participation to the local stores by handing out coupons for kid’s meals that were specifically designed for the big event. Jack-in-the-Box created a way to stand apart from the hundreds of other companies by making themselves kid and parent friendly. They also offered value to potential customers and to a consumer market they had not cornered up to that time. Sales increased over the first weekend by 160%.

CHADS Coalition for Mental Health was looking to develop a signature event to drive fundraising and bring awareness to their organization. We developed Kids Walking for Kids focused on youth participation and increasing awareness of death by teen suicide via teens themselves. The first year, we raised over $150,000! We took an event and added a fundraising promotion element and they have steadily grown over the past 5 years.

The examples shown are just two of many successful and sustaining promotions developed for clients to meet specific goals.

Source by Alice J Ross

Importance of Music in School Cirruculum

There are some basic reasons that justify the inclusion of music in the elementary curriculum.

The first of the reasons is that music serves mainly as an aesthetic or a visual experience. This experience basically involves the observation of significance with the help of sound images rather than all the way through printed communication, discussion, any sort of arithmetical modus operandi, or additional type of expression.

The improvement of one’s artistic intellect has proved the ability of being able to enhance the excellence of life equally throughout the school years and through the later years. Music’s significance as an opportunity to identity consciousness has been confirmed by experts such as Rogers and Maslow.

The second reason for which music is regarded to be an important part of the curriculum, is the role that it plays in understanding the culture. Music is a true demonstration of the traditions, community culture, aspirations and accomplishments of humankind. In music are embedded various custom values, and beliefs of the common man.

At the same time, communication with the help of music is sort of abstract; the learner must be educated to interpret this nonfigurative representation of music coordination in order to understand it.

Finally, for the reason that music edification is supported on the technique the brain understands music, it is capable of manipulating the expansion and growth of the superior cognitive procedures of the brain that are usually not possible in other fields. In recent times revealed study at the University of California has shown that prepared melody teaching improves student’s spatial aptitude, which holds a significant constituent in arithmetical way of thinking and judgment.

Supplementary investigation in this field have revealed that the brain ought to have loaded, sensory knowledge experiences if it wants to raise itself to a higher level of intellectual growth and ability. Students dispossessed of these sensory stimulation that are provided specially by music have been equated by enlightening experts to youths who at some point of time in their lives experienced brain inactivity or damage.

Lessons in music have shown their benefits by increasing the creativity and ability of the mind as well as decisive and contradictory philosophy. These are some essential skills that are needed by the brain to develop into a higher being for the present and future work place.

Clearly, all of these profits that are listed above are unswervingly connected to one’s mastery of the customs of thoughts and meaning in music and to one’s aptitude to understand writing and appreciate the fine distinction of denotation which it encloses. This is the explanation that states the importance and necessity of music in the elementary education.

With these benefits of music come to light, the focus and stress on inclusion of music has increased by many folds. With the media paying more attention to the needs of education, and the proposed budget cut reductions, the schools are now forced to cut some corners in their facilities and curriculum. However, the schools have kept intact the basic elementary classes of physical and musical training that help the students develop into a better human being at all levels.

The music classes that have been an integral part of some school curriculums classes have shown excellent results. The following explains the various benefits that have been shown by the application of music on children aged between four years to fifteen years.

Arithmetic ability: Music and melody compositions that had been included in the curriculum for children aged between four to fifteen years of age have shown positive results in deciding the mathematical ability of the children. Music has shown itself to help the child’s brain develop in an enhanced manner, thereby resulting in a better aptitude and skill to understand arithmetic as soon as they get older.

Since math’s is an integral part of our lives at every stage of life, it is essential to develop good mathematical skills. In order to survive in the technology driven world of today, it is very important for the children to develop their arithmetic and logical abilities from childhood.

Especially with our global economy, By refusing to expose our children to music at an early age we may be robbing them of an essential skill to compete with other countries.

Science Skills: These skills are also a benefit of music classes for many of the same reasons as before. Music enhances our children’s reasoning skills, which is important to understand how science works. Again, these skills are required for our children to be competitive in the future.

Reading Skills: Music classes teach the students on how to concentrate on small things. In order to efficiently understand what is being read and written, music is an essential element for its success. It also enhances memory and recall skills. This is helpful …

Essential Boat Maintenance Guide – A Weekly, Monthly & Yearly Checklist

Boating maintenance is vitally important. If your car brakes down you can simply call for a tow truck. Out on the water, a breakdown can turn deadly. Proper maintenance and inspections can ensure many years of safe boating. Below is a list of weekly, monthly and yearly routine maintenance schedules.


Weekly tests should be done by the captain, before each trip out on the boat. These tests should focus on making sure the equipment needed for each voyage is working correctly. Be sure to check bilge pumps, navigation lights, bungs and washers, the steering column for stiffness and fuel level. Also make sure the radio is operating before heading out onto the water. You should also have a quick look around the boat to identify any potential problems or hazards.


Monthly maintenance should focus on checking engine oil levels, and other motorized equipment. Be sure to check the oil levels, monitor the ropes and lines for damage, oil the winch and check safety equipment for damage including lifejackets as well as the use by dates on flares. Give the boat a good clean and also check for any general signs of wear and tare. Inspect the blades of the propellor for damage and inspect all other electrical items such as windscreen wipers, engine tilt and anything else electrical.


Your motor should be serviced at least once a year or more depending on how much you use your boat. As the owner you should thoroughly inspect to exterior and interior of your vessel at least once a year. Look for cracks, chips, blistering, loose wiring, broken fittings and anything else unusual. If you cannot fix what you see be sure to raise the issue with your service agent before getting the boat serviced. Be sure to check grab rails and other fittings are secure and tightly fitted the the boats hull. Check the boats rollers to ensure they are running smoothly otherwise add grease as needed.

By abiding by these maintenance schedules, you will increase your chances of having many years of trouble free boating. Without proper maintenance you run a great risk not only to yourself but to your passengers as well. Be safe, and keep up on your maintenance and checks.

Source by James Fletcher

House Painting Odors – Getting Rid of the Smell

Homeowners, especially those with small children, often ask me how to get rid of paint odors. It’s such a big concern for some folks that they’ll ask me about potential odor control before they even book the painting estimate.

The good news is that the evolution of house paint has come a long way with low-odor and even odorless lines for some applications. The bad news is there are still so many reasons to use the smelly stuff, especially if you’re repainting an older home. Alkyd (oil-based) and shellac or alcohol primers are especially effective in sealing water damage and old oil painted surfaces to upgrade them to Latex top coats. But they’re also very smelly with potentially long-lasting vapors. Even the most common low-odor alkyd paints often used today to repaint wood work can have a lingering odor for days under the most ventilated conditions.

So how do you get rid of the smell?

I’ve just received an email from a mother asking me that very question. Her young child’s room was painted almost two weeks ago and she’s left the windows open and the fan on ever since. Still, the paint smell is strong enough that she’s concerned about letting the child sleep in the room. The painting of this room involved a lot of priming to cover the dark brown oil paint used by the previous home owner. Since the color needed to be lightened up and the surfaces converted to a far more Eco-friendly Acrylic Latex, a common top brand Alkyd primer was used to give the whole room a fresh start. And although it had “Low Odor” printed on the can, it obviously was NOT odorless. To compound matters, all the woodwork had to be finished in a leading “Low Odor” brand of Alkyd semi gloss which produced a smooth lustrous finish as well as a migraine inducing vapor.

So what can you do? Well, there a few ways you can overcome these situations beyond obvious ventilation to control, eliminate and even prevent odors from lingering.

“An ounce of prevention”… Before there was such a thing as “low odor paint” we used to add a splash of vanilla extract to every gallon of oil paint to make it “low-odor”. It was cheap, easy to do and had no effect on the color. Now that low-odor alkyd paints are commonplace on the market, adding about a tablespoon of vanilla extract makes them virtually odorless.

Or, as in the case above, the painting is already done. It’s too late for vanilla and the smell won’t go away as quickly they’d like. What’s happening here is that the odors are being trapped in the walls while the paint cures and probably in all the fabrics and rugs in the room as well. They need something else to absorb them for good. So, here’s what I advised her to do. Cut up a few onions and place them in a couple of bowls of cold water. Put one of the bowls in the room and the other in the closet. As simple and crazy as it sounds, the onions absorb and actually eliminate the paint fumes and odors… sometimes as quickly as overnight!

I first learned this trick while creating a baby’s room about 17 years ago. I had spent about 5 weeks converting a badly crumbling and dusty old attic room into a nursery pending the baby’s birth. And as it turned out, the baby was born about two weeks early and was ready to come home just as I was finishing the project. The job required a lot of smelly primers and sealers to bury decades of neglect and water damage. As was customary in those days, I added vanilla extract to minimize the paints’ odor (and damage to my brain cells) but the smell wasn’t clearing up fast enough to bring the newborn in. The homeowner’s Nanny, who was moving into the bedroom next door (and who was also troubled by the smell) used a couple of bowls of cut onions in cold water over night and the smell was gone the next day. I couldn’t believe it!

I’ve recommended this technique ever since with great results. But it should be noted here that this example was in an empty room. In the case of a fully furnished room, as in our case above, you should consider airing out clothing, drapery, rugs or anything else which might be trapping the odors and give them a shot or two of Febreeze to do the trick nowadays.

Now sometimes, there are extreme cases where odors are simply not an option. Some people are highly allergic to the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) contained in paints and the tints used to color them. Some can become quite ill with even …

Online Form Filling Jobs Without Investment – What Types

Online form filling jobs without investment do, in fact, exist. The most common among these is data entry.

Data Entry

Data entry is actually a pretty broad term. These online jobs can cover a large variety of work that all use a common step; you fill in the information. Data entry can include placing ads, filling out form to be processed, or processing information into a different form. It’s actually very simple. You take the information they give you and plug it into whichever form (that they also give you) they want you to use. Most of them are really that simple, but not all online form filling jobs without investment will be.

Online Form Filling Jobs Without Investment – Insurance

This will require some training. The training is usually provided by the company at no cost. The reason for the training is the sensitivity of the form. If you are filling out insurance forms, you will need to know the right codes for the form. Also, some forms are worded funny, so getting a breakdown of what they expect where on the form is a good idea. This is another example of online form filling jobs without investment, but it will require a little more from you to do it properly.

Online Form Filling Jobs Without Investment – Medical Coders

Medical coding is another job that will require training. A lot of this is provided by the company that wants the work done. You should realize that this training will only be good with that specific company. Their training will not give you all of the correct information to do coding for anyone. It only teaches you exactly how their company needs it done. There is a different kind of training that you can take to be a medical coder that will allow you to do work for many companies. It is training that you will have to pay for. If you find that you like doing this type of work with one company, you might want to check out that alternative.


Please take not that the online form filling jobs without investment means you are not paying to do the work. There is no capital investment involved. You still have to put in the time and effort if you want to get paid just like any other job. The work might be easier, but it still has to get done id you want the paycheck. You should also realize that there are only a couple examples mentioned in this article. There are many more out there.

Source by Feargal Downes

Her Most Famous Painting (Oriental Poppies) – Georgia O’Keeffe

The American painter Georgia O’Keeffe (November 1887-March 1986) was a pioneering ‘Modernist.’ Her unique approach defied all the accepted norms of painting and gave a new definition to the ‘American Modern Art.’ Owing to her competence, American Art attained fame and recognition in creatively competent Europe. Flowers fascinated Georgia and they were her favorite subject on canvas. O’Keeffe painted “Oriental Poppies” in 1928. This stunning work was declared a groundbreaking, art masterpiece.

Georgia O’Keeffe described her painting as a product of what she perceived in her mind and felt in her heart. In “Oriental Poppies,” she depicts two giant poppy flowers. Measuring 30″ x 40″, this oil painting is an explosion of brilliant colors on a vast canvas, lending a mesmerizing effect. O’Keefe used dazzling red and orange as the main color of the petals. The hollowed centre and the inner contours of the flowers are painted in deep purple. The skillful shading and velvety finish of the petals accentuates the vibrancy of the flowers. “Oriental Poppies” almost looks like a close up photograph. O’Keeffe did not give any background to the painting, to artfully draw focus onto the flowers. The absence of context in the painting presents them in a new light as pure abstracts. “Oriental Poppies” exudes a startling pull, as if casting a hypnotic spell on the viewer.

Georgia O’Keeffe believed that due to the fast-paced lives people live, they merely glance at flowers, but never really observed their exquisiteness. She wished to give such rushing people experience and the feel of the true beauty of flowers. In her words, “If I could paint the flower exactly as I see it no one would see what I see because I would paint it small like the flower is small. So I said to myself – I’ll paint what I see – what the flower is to me but I’ll paint it big and they will be surprised into taking time to look at it – I will make even busy New Yorkers take time to see what I see of flowers.” O’Keeffe chose to paint on a huge canvas with an outburst of bold colors, to astonish the viewers and to introduce them to the wonder of nature. In her bid, she managed to capture the essence of poppies with eloquence.

Many art researchers believed that O’Keeffe’s “Oriental Poppies” was an answer to the zoomed in technique adapted by Alfred Stieglitz in ‘Modern Photography.’ The magnificent painting speaks volumes of O’Keefe’s talent and artistic vision. Georgia’s delightful representation of two ordinary flowers generated widespread admiration and was considered as one of her most memorable works. It is now a part of a collection at the University of Minnesota Art Museum, Minneapolis.

Source by Annette Labedzki

Role of Music in Human Life

Music is passion

Music is energy

Music is joy

Music is creativity

Music is eternal

Music is love

Music is soul

Music is life

Music is one of the greatest creations of human kind in the course of history. It is creativity in a pure and undiluted form and format. Music plays a vital role in our daily life. It is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Music is a way to escape life, which gives us relief in pain and helps us to reduce the stress of the daily routine. It helps us to calm down, an even excites us in the moment of joy. Moreover, it enriches the mind and gives us self confidence.

Music surrounds our lives at different moments of lives, whether we hear it on the radio, on television, from our car and home stereos. Different kinds of music are appropriate for different occasions. We come across it in the mellifluous tunes of a classical concert or in the devotional strains of a bhajan, the wedding band, or the reaper in the fields breaking into song to express the joys of life. Even warbling in the bathroom gives us a happy start to the day. Music has a very powerful therapeutic effect on the human psyche. It has always been part of our association with specific emotions, and those emotions themselves have given rise to great music.

The origins of Indian music can be traced back to the chanting of the Sama Veda nearly 4,000 years ago. The primacy of the voice, and the association of musical sound with prayer, were thus established early in the history of Indian music. Today, music is available for us in different forms and the choice for music varies from person to person just as the reading choices vary from one another. There is folk music, classical music, devotional music, instrumental, jazz, rock music, pop music, hindi movie songs and many more.

In the modern world, Music has gained an honourable designation of ‘HEALING WITHOUT MEDICINE’. Doctors feel that music therapy has been helping them in treating many people with problems like dementia, dyslexia depression and trauma.” Many children with learning disability and poor co-ordination have been able to learn, and respond to set pieces of music. Many people with genetic disability have found a new light in the form of music.

Dance critic Ashish Khokar cites an experiment as proof: “Music is produced from sound, and sound affects our sense perception in many ways. Even fish in an aquarium were once made to listen to different kinds of music and it was found that their movements corresponded with the beat of the music. Mind you, fish do not hear, they only felt the vibrations of the sound through water. So you can imagine what a profound effect sound and music might have on the human mind.”

Anand Avinash, founder of the Neuro Linguistic Consciousness workshop who has researched music therapy says,”the mystics and saints from ancient to modern times have shown how music can kindle the higher centers of the mind and enhance quality of life.” Mantras, or chants used in the West, repeated monotonously, help the mind to achieve a sense of balance. A combination of the sounds in Sanskrit mantras produce certain positive vibrations and elevate the mind to a higher lever of consciousness.

We all know that meditation cleanses the system of its negative energies and vibrations. And music is a powerful aid to meditation. In many meditation workshops, music is used to make people more aware of their moods and feelings. People are made to lie down and empty their minds and then listen to the music which is systematically changed so that they can fit through different emotions and state of consciousness.

Many people also believe that any music you respond to positively will work for you, regardless of its content. Thus, even pop music might work wonders for you.

Music affects all of us in some way or the other. It also is the most common interest of many people. People who love music, listen to it while traveling, reading, meditation, walking, some even have soft music while working in their busy routine. It helps them to relax and escape from the stress of our day-to-day lives. It can transport us to another time or place and it is a great feeling of seeing or doing or experiencing something different. People have special music corner for themselves and some people give importance to listening in silence and some people love to read with light music and even some people love listening to music before sleeping. Many people love listening to music in bathroom because they feel it is one of the few rooms in the home where privacy is routinely …

Fine Arts Reproductions – Best Example Of Dedication Towards Art

There is a common belief with respect to art that genuine things get better with the passage of the time. World famous artists are immortal through their creations. To name a few Leonardo Vinci, Van Gogh, Raphael, Monet etc. The artifice did not confine with their ages, but this field has always been in progress since time immemorial. Every individual who has been in deeply in love with this passion has definitely made some other kind of contribution in this field. And this sheer hard work and dedication can now be witnessed in the form of fine art reproductions.

Some of the most advanced form of fine art reproductions is described below. Canvas art print can be considered to be a popular means of conserving an original piece. This technique uses a superior quality ink jet printer for printing individual copies of any original piece. This medium is efficient in delivering identical copies of any genuine work even including works of world famous artists. This photo chemical process is now a days a hit among the customers due to its effective service at affordable rates. Even artists are seen using this particular technology in order to multiply their limited creations.

Another popular feature of fine art reproductions is oil painting reproductions. This technique includes a different procedure. The produced picture is not absolutely identical of the original work, as it is totally done manually. The expert team is hired, who then create a close replica of the order placed. Oil paints are used and this pass muster team delivers a hand painted piece which truly looks alike the picture assigned. People, who are into art world and have a fair knowledge in this field, can surely spot the difference. But still then such kinds of oil paintings reproductions are worth purchasing as one can get a similar painting at much lower price. Anybody can own a virtual image or work of world famous artist including Van Gogh and Da Vinci.

Source by Hemank Sharma

Mode of Entertainment

There is no denying the fact that any mode of entertainment is a part of flourishing merits, hardihood and intellectuals in humans as they create sufficient humors with an intensive irritability. The different media set variety of programs to focus a certain event based on literary diction, personification between the plants and the animals, transient life, rhyme, decay and periodicity concepts with which the criteria of spontaneous growth is vivid and vivacious ingrained in cultural as well as social life. A life becomes poor and frustrated if there is no leisure to enjoy the beauties of nature and blissful attitudes created by the modes of entertainment. Only work is not the solutions of developments in all levels like education, culture, philosophy, religion and heritage, but modes of entertainment play a vital role in achieving optimistic life in question.

The mode of entertainment awakens the lifeless soul of humans for which humans experience peace and placate in bringing a steadiness of position stuck between sorrows and cheerfulness. In this ephemeral world, the natural beauties like the sun set scene from the rivers and mountains, swimming scene of the crocodile- the only killer animals in the world, the remarkable technique of prey of the lions and the tigers fascinate us on a large scale. When the wandering entertainers roam about here and there even in the remotest corner of the world entertain us and we find pleasures having seen their modes of amusement virtually. In modern day the entertainment modes have been changed. Television chalks out various programmes of entertainment in the field of cinema, drama, science fiction which catch the attention of gaining knowledge and happiness. The musical programmes promulgated in Radio and television give pleasures and tranquility in our real life situation. We can learn a lot on the differentiation of truthful and fictional events. These programmes help us to know the unknown particularly the complex thing apparent to be easier for which we can resolve different simulation based problems and complicacies.

There are lots of modes of entertainment in present day affairs of life which provide us knowledge and skills in retaliating the hurdles which may appear at anytime. In sports and games, we get pleasures of different tastes and attitudes in understating the fundamental realism of life. From the programmes of sports and games, animal planets, science education, simulation technique, geographical and atmospheric programmes in the Internets, Television, Radio and environmental programmes in the Newspaper and magazines, we find various levels of improvement and exploration of newness. It is evident, from the different modes of entertainment; we learn discipline, skills and the significance of success in life. From such moods of entertainment, we find ways and means to proceed towards advancement of success, pleasures and happiness.

Man lives in deeds not in years. All that glitters is not gold. In real life situation, we need to be particular and there is no shelter for the theists who believe in pessimistic life. Hopeful and constructive life is the basis for gaining perfect strategy of success. The modes of entertainments are the perpetual sectors of getting pleasures and happiness from where we can deal a vigilant and constructive way of life. If the modes of entertainment are misled, the youth society may be besmirched and as such we would lose effective manpower for which our development of economic growth will be hampered tentatively. Hence it is said that modes of entrainment teaches us how to avoid chaos, confusion and frolicsome activities ingrained in common life as the social bitterness and the immoral social activities differentiates among the people creating rivalry, jealousy, competition and terrorism.

Source by Kh. Atiar Rahman

Hand-Colored Photographs by Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers

Although Wallace Nutting was widely recognized as the country’s leading producer of hand-colored photographs during the early 20th century, he was by no means the only photographer selling this style of picture. Throughout the country literally hundreds of regional photographers were selling hand-colored photographs from their home regions or travels. The subject matter of these photographers was very comparable to Nutting’s, including Interior, Exterior, Foreign, and Miscellaneous Unusual scenes. The key determinants of value include the collectability of the particular photographer, subject matter, size, and of course condition. Keep in mind that only the rarest pictures, in the best condition, will bring top prices. Discoloration and/or damage to the picture or matting can reduce value significantly.

Major Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers: Several photographers operated large businesses and, although not as large or well-known as Nutting, they sold a substantial volume of pictures which can still be readily found today. The vast majority of their work was photographed in their home regions and sold primarily to local residents or visiting tourists. And it should come as little surprise that 3 of the major Wallace Nutting-Like photographers… David Davidson, Fred Thompson, and Charles Sawyer…each had ties to Nutting.

  • David Davidson: Second to Nutting in overall production, Davidson worked primarily in the Rhode Island and Southern Massachusetts area. While a student at Brown University around 1900, Davidson learned the art of hand-colored photography directly from Nutting, who happened to be the Minister at Davidson’s Providence RI church. After Nutting moved to Southbury in 1905, Davidson graduated from Brown and started a successful photography business in Providence which he operated until his death in 1967.
  • Charles Sawyer: A father & son team, Charles H. Sawyer and Harold B. Sawyer, operated the very successful Sawyer Art Company from 1903-1970’s. Beginning in Farmington ME, the Sawyer Art Company moved to Concord NH in 1920 to be nearer their primary market of New Hampshire’s White Mountains. Charles Sawyer briefly worked for Nutting in 1902-03 while living in southern Maine. Sawyer’s production volume ranks #3 behind Nutting and Davidson.
  • Fred Thompson: Frederick H. Thompson and Frederick M. Thompson were another father and son team that operated the Thompson Art Company (TACO) from 1908-1923, working primarily in the Portland, ME area. We know that Thompson and Nutting had collaborated because Thompson widely marketed an Interior scene he had taken in Nutting’s Southbury home. The production volume of the Thompson Art Company ranks #4 behind Nutting, Davidson, and Sawyer.
  • Charles Higgins: Working out of Bath Maine, some of Higgins finest pictures rivaled Nutting’s best. No firm connection has been found between Higgins and Nutting.

Minor Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers: Hundreds of other smaller local and regional photographers attempted to market hand-colored pictures comparable to Wallace Nutting’s during the 1900-1930’s time period. Although quite attractive, most were not as appealing to the general public as Wallace Nutting pictures. However, as the price of Wallace Nutting pictures has escalated, the work of these lesser-known Wallace Nutting-Like photographers have become increasingly collectible.

A partial listing of some of these minor Wallace Nutting-Like Photographers include: Babcock; J.Carleton Bicknell; Blair; Ralph Blood (Portland, ME); Bragg; Brehmer; Brooks; Burrowes; Busch; Royal Carlock; Pedro Cacciola; Croft; Currier; Depue Bros; Derek; Dowly; Eddy; May Farini (hand-colored Colonial lithographs); Geo. Forest; Gandara; H. Marshall Gardner (Nantucket, Bermuda, Florida); Gibson; Gideon; Gunn; Bessie Pease Gutmann (hand-colored Colonial Lithographs); Edward Guy; Harris; C. Hazen; Knoffe; F. Jay Haynes (Yellowstone Park); Margaret Hennesey; Hodges; Homer; Krabel; Kattleman; La Bushe; Lake; Lamson (Portland ME); M. Lightstrum; Machering; Rossiler; Mackinae; Merrill; Meyers; William Moehring; Moran; Murrey; Lyman Nelson; J. Robinson Neville (New England); Patterson; Owen Perry; Phelps; Phinney; Reynolds; F. Robbins; Royce; Fred’k Scheetz (Phila, PA); Shelton; Harry L. Standley (Colorado); Stott; Summers; Esther Svenson; Florence Thompson; Thomas Thompson; M.A. Trott; Sanford Tull; Underhill; Villar; Ward; Wilmot; Edith Wilson; Wright.

The same guidelines that apply to Nutting pictures typically apply to Nutting-Like pictures as well:

  • Exterior Scenes are the most common.
  • Some photographers sold colonial Interior scenes as well.
  • Subject Matter, Condition, and Size are all important determinants of value.

References Books:

  • The Collectors Guide to Early 20th Century Hand-Painted Photography, by Michael Ivankovich, 250 pgs, illustrated with pricing information.
  • The Hand-Painted Photographs of Charles Henry Sawyer, by Carol Begley Gray, Michael Ivankovich & John Peters, 60 pgs, illustrated with pricing information.

The Wallace Nutting Collector’s Club: Established in 1973, the Wallace Nutting Collectors Club holds annual conventions, usually in the northeastern portion of the country. Since there are no collectors clubs specifically dedicated to the works of any of the other photographers, collectors generally gravitate to the Wallace Nutting Collectors Club for information on early 20th century hand-colored photography.

Source by Michael Ivankovich

The Negative Side of Humor

Where there’s a positive side of things…there’s usually a negative side, and that applies to humor as well.

Unfortunately, the negative side of humor can be ugly…it can hurt feelings, and can be damaging and destructive! There are people in this world who will do almost anything for money. There are people in this world who will do almost anything for power. There are people in this world who will do almost anything for fame. And, there are people in this world who will do almost anything to get a laugh…and if they hurt somebody in the process…no apologies…business as usual!

In my view, this country is suffering from a big fat attitude problem that needs to be fixed! What are parents teaching their kids…to be corrupt? What happened to manners and respect? I haven’t seen a local news broadcast on television for years! Why? It’s the same old broken record…only the names change. The same old tired stories…who murdered who…who robbed who…another woman was raped, and there is more and more corruption…scandal, etc.

All of this gets old after a while. You have to wonder if there is any good news in America anymore! Yes, there is, but good news doesn’t sell newspapers, and the television ratings and newspapers won’t sell, if there is no bad news!

I think this society is turning more and more negative, and all that negativity rubs off on the children and grandchildren. There so much negativity in this society, that some of the people who are supposed to be leaders and model citizens in the community are being busted for one thing or another. Corruption; DWI; bad behavior in general.

How does humor fit into all this bad behavior? Put down of others…just to get a laugh! Ethnic jokes…just to get a laugh! Racial slurs…just to get a laugh! Dirty jokes…just to get a laugh! Teasing of others…just to get a laugh! Negative humor, like booze; prostitution; drugs will always be with us, and we all have to live with it, etc. Negative humor is another black eye for America!

A few years ago, was when we heard of the violence on a few high school campuses around the country. Students and others were shot and murdered on school grounds! There is no doubt in my mind, that some of this violence started, at least in part, because of teasing kids until they couldn’t take it anymore…JUST TO GET A LAUGH!

What are parents teaching their kids today? Have they ever heard of mutual-respect? If they’ve heard of it, do they teach mutual-respect to their kids? Many of us have been teased in school, I know I have. Being Hispanic, I remember I was teased because I didn’t speak or write the English well. Kids would make fun of me…JUST TO GET A LAUGH! It was so upsetting to me, that I didn’t want to go back to school! Everyone knows kids can be awful. I was always reluctant to give an oral book report for fear that the kids would laugh at me! I will always remember those awful days of ridicule and hate!

If you’ve ever been put down, by those who I refer to as “the jokesters and people of put-down,” who enjoy getting a laugh at somebody else’s expense, then you know how awful it can sting! I’m reminded of a comedian (so he calls himself), who goes around the country, putting down and making fun of the disabled and the challenged…JUST TO GET A LAUGH! This guy is the lowest of the low! What kind of humor is this? What kind of people would go to see this JERK, who finds laughing at challenged people amusing! This so-called comedian and his followers are what I call “the little minds of the world!” They’re warped…all of them, who would do something like this!

Where is this country headed when we allow this kind of thing, that is, making fun of the disabled and the mentally challenged? I know the issue of free speech in involved…and not much can be done about it! Will you allow your children to see this so-called comedian putting down the disabled and the challenged?

* I don’t see anything funny or amusing about a person who has suffered an illness; an accident and who will spend the rest of his or her life in a wheelchair.

* I don’t see anything funny or amusing about a person who was born with a deformity.

* I don’t see anything funny or amusing about a blind person who is struggling to cope.

* I don’t see anything funny or amusing about a person who has a speech impediment, hearing loss or severe burns!

Regrettably, humor can play a part in all this, because there the “little …

What Is A Giclee Print And What Is Its Life Span?

What is a giclee print?

Giclee prints are digital reproductions of works of fine art that are usually printed on a canvas or on watercolour paper. Giclee printing refer to an advanced method of printing whiley these works are produced to have a much higher quality and much longer lifespan than those produced by a standard inkjet printer. The prints are created from a highly detailed digital file which is sent to a specialized printer that is much more advanced than a typical inkjet printer and is capable of handling several different types of printing materials.

What's the difference between a giclee and a standard inkjet print?

The document from which the giclee is to be printed has to have a resolution greater than 300 DPI (dots per inch). Any camera or scanner used to capture the image must also have a resolution greater than 300 DPI. The substrate the work is printed on to has to be of archival quality due archival paper lasts longer and reproduce colors much more effectively than standard paper. Giclee prints are usually created using professional printers and pigment-based inks. These inks have a much longer lifespan than dye-based inks and are thought to last over 100 years without fading. The printers used to create gicles can produce works in a much larger format and can typically hold up to a dozen ink cartridges, allowing for highly detailed works to be produced.

Where does the term 'giclee' come from?

The term 'giclee' comes from the French word meaning a spray or squirt of liquid. It was first coined in 1991 by the printmaker Jack Duganne to refer to the process of creating prints of fine art using IRIS printers, a process which was invented in the late 80s. Nowadays the term 'giclee print' can refer to other types of inkjet printing and works of art that are digitally created on a computer program, such as Illustrator or Adobe Photoshop, before being processed on to a substrate.

What's the lifespan of a glyce print?

It is currently uncertain how long a giclee will last because the technology used to create them is fairly recent. Some websites say a giclee will last over 100 years, while others offer a more modest estimation of over 35 years. Some sites do mention aging simulations carried out in laboratories to try to determine how long gicles will last, but there is no way to verify any claims. Obviously gicles will last if they are cared for well; It can also be safely assumed that they will last significantly longer than inkjet prints thanks to the quality of the printers, archival paper and inks used to create them.

Why go for gicles?

One of the main advantages of gicles is that they can be created on-demand as the process is digital. Artists can there before create their own prints whenever they want with ease. This is a much better option for artists who might not want to mass-produce their works. Once a file is digitally archived, it will not deteriorate in quality or gradually fade like physical works do. Each giclee print can be customized, whether it's printed on to a number of different substrates or whether its size is altered. Giclee prints are very popular thanks to their high quality and the fact that they can be more advantageous to artists than standard methods of printing. Giclees are commonly seen in galleries and exhibitions all around the world.

Source by Joanne Perkins

Hollywood of Today – Synergy Marketing Strategy

New Millennium of Filmmaking

In the New Millennium of filmmaking, Hollywood operates according to a synergy marketing strategy. This is because the new Hollywood of Today is no longer controlled by the former studio giants founded during the studio system that was prevalent from the early 1920s to the 1950s. Columbia, Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century-Fox, Universal, RKO, Paramount Pictures, and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer are not structured in the same way they were years ago. Today, the Hollywood film industry is quite different.

For example, the majority of the profits from a motion picture release do not come from box office ticket sales as they did during the studio system years. The bulk of the profits come from a myriad of other marketing avenues. In the Hollywood of Today, film production companies give official, legal permission to market their movie characters and corresponding stories to other business markets for increased profits. These businesses include sale of books, music, clothing, games, digital streaming and downloads of movies through television, sale of optical disk media, amusement parks as well as a multitude of other synergistic sales avenues.

This was not the case during the earlier studio system where the majority of profits came from ticket sales. Therefore, even though a studio in Hollywood today may look the same physically on the outside, it operates to a completely different way of business on the inside.

Film Studio Ownership by Large Businesses and International Conglomerates

Hollywood film studios and independent filmmaking companies are now owned by large businesses and international conglomerates. These large corporations have a myriad of business industries under single ownership. As a result, motion picture production and distribution is just one of the many types of business aspects that these huge firms receive money from on a regular basis. Examples of the transition of independent film studios to large business firms include:

(1) Columbia Studio is now owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation,

(2) Warner Brothers is now owned by Time Warner, Inc.,

(3) Twentieth Century-Fox is now a subsidiary of News Corporation,

(4) Universal Studios is a subsidiary of NBC Universal which is now owned by General Electric,

(5) Paramount Pictures is now owned by Viacom International, and

(6) Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) is partly owned by Sony Corporation along with several other large business firms.

Business Structure and Operation in the New Millennium of Filmmaking

In the Hollywood of Today, Hollywood film studios are no longer independent. They are now owned by large international firms and businesses. Therefore, Hollywood film production and distribution is only one of a multitude of different types of commerce these huge conglomerates participate in on a daily basis. Hollywood film revenues represent only one portion of a large corporation’s business dealings. As a result, this new business structure and commercial framework has resulted in a blockbuster/sequel frame-of-mind upheld by a synergy marketing strategy.

With the many different types of marketing avenues now available through the commercial enterprises of large business firms and international conglomerates, the Hollywood of Today has transitioned to a film style and mode of production that capitalizes on the concentrated synergistic effect of film-related sale of merchandise and other media offshoots.

Source by Adrian Robbe